adb pull /sdcard/ /sdcard/
(This will pull all of your sdcard contents to an "sdcard" folder in your C:\ directory)
Applications and their data:
Take note, that you'll need to be using CyanogenMod's method for setting up ADB to do this. The ADB AIO application installs an older SDK without this functionality. First, get your drivers installed (detailed in post one). Once you get ADB installed (post one), navigate to the C:\android-sdk-windows\platform-tools folder on your computer. Hold shift and right click. Select "Open Command Window Here."
Input this while your phone is turned on and USB Debugging is Enabled in Settings>Developer Settings>USB Debugging.
adb backup -apk -noshared -all -nosystem
Your phone will ask for a password. Input one and remember it.
Once the process completes: continue with unlocking and rooting your phone.
Upon unlocking and rooting your phone: open up ADB again.
Enter this code:
adb restore backup.ab
Input the password you saved to this file earlier, and wait for the restore to complete.
To restore your SDcard backup, first move the "sdcard" folder that was made in the backup process to your platform-tools folder.
adb push sdcard /sdcard/