This kind of got lost in the midst of bigger stuff in the other thread so I figured I'd try one specifically for it, since it's my main issue.
My contacts were saved to my device (or SIM maybe?), not my google account. I know, bad idea, but it was unintentional and it's done. Due to another issue I had to remove and re-add my google account to my phone. When I did this, all of my contacts disappeared. Nothing shows up in my contacts app and when I get a call from someone that I had as a contact I only see their number, not their name/contact info.
I don't know what the relation is between my contacts that were stored on my device and my google account being temporarily removed from my phone, but I don't think those contacts are actually deleted. If I go into the app manager I see something there called "contacts storage" that is 9.2mb in size. I'm guessing this still has the contact's info? Is there any way to retrieve this and/or get them to show up again?