I tried Linux on Android but it gives invalid argument mounting the loop device. Linux Deploy has an option to not use a loop device and install to a folder I think. Not positive. Try Advanced Linux Installer. That might work. It costs but it's way better than the free version. Try Standard Linux Installer first if you like.
I'll try to provide that info. What you're seeing likely means where it's trying to write isn't allowed. Try changing the install location to somewhere safe like /data/kali or something. Also I just found out the S5 won't do ext2 so if you're trying to do a loop device use ext4 if possible. Sorry I don't have more info at the moment.
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