General (incl. Linux, Android, etc) terms:
- Odexed: A ROM that all the system apks has an .odex file that contains stuff about the apk. It is used to save some storage in most of stocks.
- Deodexed: A ROM that all the system apks has their own stuff in their own apk, not reliabling on the .odex files to save storage.
- Wiping: Self-explanatory. Every time you flash a ROM you need to wipe away all the stuff of the old things, and bringing the modified stuff back to normal and then you can replace it (if not it will conflict and stucks)
- Xposed: A framework for modding without the hassle of editing any apks. Uses modules to mod. Kinda cool.
- Terminal: The Terminal of Linux. You can say it's like Windows' Command Prompt. You guys can reach the terminal shell within Android with Terminal Emulator (Play Store please, it's free), it still uses Linux's commands, it's also used by Complete Linux Installer to host a VNC server and run Linux distros on it, and you guys can also install BusyBox to extend the Android Terminal shell as the Android Terminal shell is not the same as Linux's, so BusyBox to the help! Unleash your inner geek!
- BusyBox: You guys gotta know this, right? It's a executable contains most Linux/Unix commands, ie. In your Wi-Fi router, there is a very small 3MB flash, and there are Linux/Unix commands in it. They uses BusyBox to narrow down the size as BusyBox is very small in size but contains most Linux/Unix commands. And we also can install single packages, instead of using the whole thing.
- Recovery: A "secret" menu thingy, reached by holding a combination. It's where you can do basic crap like factory resetting your phone, applying update.zip (OTA updates) (stock), in custom recoveries, you can do a lot more stuff.
- Flash: Writing an official Android firmware (kernel, system, baseband, etc. of stock files) to your device. We have ODIN for Samsung, Flashtool for Sony (that's all I know)
- ROM: The Android firmware in your device.
- Radio: The radio firmware, you need it to connect to Internet.
- Kernel: The core of every OS, and here, we're based on Linux. And if your bootloader is unlocked, you can replace it. Simple.
- Soft-brick a.k.a Bootloop: You got stuck in the logo or it keeps looping the boot sequence.
- Bootloader: What Android (and every OS) uses to make the core reads and loads the OS.
- Unlocked/Locked Bootloader: The state of the bootloader. Unlock the bootloader makes the Android kernel replaceable, and make the core reads it as a valid Android kernel. Locked bootloader only reads the stock kernel as valid to boot. Usually unlocking the bootloader voids your warranty.
- Root: The work to gain full control. You guys know Linux, it come with root, but on Android, Google disabled it, so we gotta enable it, and use an app like SuperSU to control and manages it. In the old days, rooting usually needs to unlock the bootloader, so you gonna void the warranty of the phone. But now, we can root with out unlocking the bootloader, which we can keep the warranty!
- Hard-brick: Basically, your device becomes a battery-powered paper holder. (And it CANNOT be saved unless: you buy a new phone or you go and change the mainboard)
- Stock Recovery: Just too bullcrap, only usable for stock OTA updates (apply update.zip) and factory resetting your devices.
- Custom Recovery: A customized recovery (self-explanatory) and it can do more than the stock recovery, like installing ROMs, flash stuff, etc. Two well-known custom recoveries are ClockworkMod and TeamWin Recovery Project. There are less-known variants of them like PhilZ, ClockworkMod Touch, due to their compatibility to less phones.
- ClockworkMod Recovery (CWM, or CWM Recovery for short): A custom recovery for Android devices. Not just factory resetting your devices, it can also clear cache, do crap in it and install custom ROMs
- TeamWin Recovery Project (TWRP or TWRP Recovery for short): Same as CWM but more user-friendly with touch controls, and also can flash more than one zip at once, and other stuff. But we have CWM Touch to compete with TWRP in the user-friendly-ness!
- TA Partition: Trim Area Partition, where Sony's DRM keys for Sony's patented stuff to run. When you unlock your bootloader, the TA Partition will be erased. You will lose Sony's technologies like Bravia Engine,... if the TA Partition is erased.
- S-ON and S-OFF: Basically, it's a extra protection layer staying under the bootloader. S-OFF means you can fully operates the device, like a simple unlock of the bootloader. But in HTC, to have full control, you have to S-OFF too, and I remember it also voids your warranty.
- Knox: Samsung's new protection like HTC's S-ON, it will become 0x1 ("Custom" state) if you flash a custom ROM. When it becomes 0x1, your warranty is voided.
- Flash counter: If you flash 1 custom ROM or a ROM with ODIN, it will becomes 1. And as soon as it becomes 1, you will trip Knox, and your warranty is voided. You can reset this with a Gingerbread ROM (official, everything included).
- Stock ROMs: The Android firmware shipped with your phone, full of bloatware (in my opinion) and better be replaced with a custom one.
- Custom ROM: An Android firmware has been changed and modded by developers. Usually based on these three kernels:
+ Stock (Normal Kernel)
+ CyanogenMod (CyanogenMod kernel for modding)
+ AOKP (AOKP kernel I remember)
- AOSP: Android Open Source Project, the source code of Android released by Google Inc. and most major aftermarket ROMs based on it. (also stocks too, no AOSP, no Android)
- CyanogenMod: An aftermarket Android firmware, official releases based on AOSP, very customisable, very smooth and it's better than stock ROMs to use daily because of the smoothness of AOSP.
- AOKP: Android Open Kang Project, also an aftermarket Android firmware, has a lot of features (even more than CM) but the small bit of lag due to the features makes it not very comfortable to use daily.
- ParanoidAndroid: Again, another aftermarket firmware, like AOKP, has a lot of features and other crap. And it has a cool thing: Pie Control. Basically navbar in a pie chart thingy.
*ALL THOSE ROMS ABOVE ALL BASED ON CYANOGENMOD, EXCEPT FOR ITSELF, WHICH BASES ON AOSP*
CyanogenMod (CM for short)-related terms:
- Theme Engine: A theme engine of CM, presents since CM9 (I remember - Trebuchet is CM's own launcher since then so yeah) which applies custom themes, they themes from the icons to the status bar icons. Pretty freaking sick. I use stock in my Acro HD, and CM in my Arc S, and I miss that kind of modding the theme of my phone.
ParanoidAndroid (PA for short)-related terms:
- Pie Control: As explained above, a navbar in a pie chart thingy, which helps a lot I mean. I used PA once, and that is sick. PA ROMs are cool. They have CM's features and some of their stuff. Sick as crap. So cool. Just full awesome.
- ADB: Android Debug Bridge, a debug tool for developers to "hook" themselves up to the device. It can do a basic Android device can do: install, uninstall, take a logcat of the device, etc. Some commands:
+ adb devices: list the devices (under the serial) connected and recognized.
+ adb logcat: take a logcat of your device in realtime, press Ctrl+C to stop.
+ adb install: install Android APKs to your phone, adb uninstall is vice-versa.
+ adb push: copy a file to your device.
+ adb pull: take a file from your device and copy it to your PC.
+ fastboot flash (image): flash a kernel to your device.
+ fastboot boot (image): boot an image (usually for a recovery) without flashing it onto your phone, for backing up a fully stock ROM with stock recovery (mostly).
Okay. It's the end of it for now. Please press thanks if it helped you, and please add me stuff if I missed anything, also correct me if I'm wrong. Thanks! I love Android, and I always will.
NOTE: NO APPLE FANBOYS HERE PLEASE! REMEMBER, I LOVE ANDROID, AND I ALWAYS WILL
NOTE 2: TERMINAL AND BUSYBOX ARE LINUX'S TERMS, NOT ANDROID'S BUT THEY ARE RELATED SO IT'S STILL BEING LISTED HERE AS IT'S STILL PART OF ANDROID ANYWAY
Sent and edited from my Acro HD and my Arc S via XDA Premium 4 app, and my PC through Chrome.