Unless the phone supports USB3, you won't be able to charge it faster simply by plugging it in USB3
HTC One M8 Developer Edition
M8_UL_CA PVT SHIP UNLOCKED S-OFF
CID-BS_US001 | HBOOT-3.18.0.0000 | RADIO-1.19.21331147A1.09G | OpenDSP-v38.2.2-00542-M8974.0311 | OS-2.22.1540.3