I had everything working perfectly on 4.3 (ARHD 22.0).
I flashed new firmware, flashed latest TWRP, upgraded to ARHD 41.0. Now adb no longer recognizes the device. (it shows up in Device Manager as "Android Phone" in "Other Devices", although it also shows up as HTC Device or something in another category. weird)
I'm on Windows 8.1. Had 4.3 working on 8.1 also, using that one guide with the Windows 7 drivers.
I've heard about the universal drivers by Koush but they don't seem to be working for me either?
Any help is appreciated!
EDIT: I solved it! I think this is worth sharing.
So I plugged the phone in again.
Decided to look in the HTC Sync Manager partition thing that always pops up.
Found what looked to be driver files in there. (In the Windows 7 64-bit folder)
Extracted that folder.
Went into Device Manager and manually selected that folder as driver updates to "Android Phone" and "something serial whatever" (sorry can't remember exactly now lol) under "Other Devices" and also to "HTC Device" under the section just below "Other Devices" (sorry can't remember the name of that section either). The three things immediately updated and left those temporary designations and began to function (My HTC appeared under android devices).
Now adb works.
Sorry for forgetting the exact words. Basically the extracted drivers work for upgrading the three new weird things that appear when you connect the phone. Hope someone else is as excited as I am that this works.