Boot into Odin mode THEN plug the device in, let windows find the drivers for it then once that's done, reboot the phone regularly and see if it works then. It appears to be an issue with most to ALL Samsung devices, but this worked for my wife's galaxy S3 when the computer wouldn't recognize it and the phone didn't detect a PC connection.
Sent from my SM-N900V using xda app-developers app
Current Device: Verizon Samsung Galaxy Note 3
Previous Devices: Motorola Droid Bionic, Droid X, HTC Touch Pro 2, Blackberry Curve, Motorola RIZR, You don't wanna know before that.....