First off, welcome
The topics you mention are not very important if you just want to "get the job done". Aroma is a GUI installer based on scripting, used to install roms with user options about apps, tweaks, etc..
Stick to the major guides on the subjects you want to explore (rooting, s-off, custom recovery, etc) - and if you stumple upon words, phrases or mentionings you cant make sense of, then take it from there, and google them (or, of course, look at XDA).
Thats what i did.
Addicted to the creative genius of the Android devs - thank you all, for you guys make Android worth using!
HTC Endeavor (HTC One X) | [AOKP] IceColdJelly421
HTC M7_UL (HTC One) | AICP - Android IceCold Project