As a General Class Ham Radio Operator in the US, I can safely say I've yet to hear of a phone with such a radio in it. Citizen's Band, or CB, operates within the 11m band (~27MHz), and neither Cellular or WiFi radio are near there. Cellular radio is normally in the 850, 900, 1800 and/or 1900MHz bands, depending on your particular phone/carrier/location, and WiFi is in the GHz.
However, there is an application for Echolink (which you WILL require a valid Ham Radio license to operate, even for the mobile app), and using that, you could theoretically connect to a Link or Repeater client, and if they had a radio capable of CB/10m broadcast, that would work. However such a client is unlikely to be found -- most Echolink/IRLP Nodes that exist are not on HF (where CB is), they're mostly all VHF and/or UHF.