Are you doing this with the phone turned on and booted into the os? It gives you a PTP error first, make sure the phone is in MTP. At the bottom you also have a LIBMTP error tho. I don't have much experience with debian but from what I understand it is extremely stable but the downside is that it can be a bit out of date at times. Ubuntu and all ubuntu derivatives had a major mtp flaw awhile back but it has since been fixed. Im not sure if it has been fixed in debian. Yes ubuntu is based off of debian, but just like linux mint will add things to the ubuntu base, ubuntu will do the same to the debian base. So LIBMTP MAY be out of date, Im not sure. I know that I have no problem seeing my phone from either the terminal or file browser. Check this out and see if it helps any.
If not you may have to follow engine's advice and format the sd.
EDIT: Also this might work, it is for linux mint but adding the repository and installing it should work on debian(I think) since they all use .deb files. Before ubuntu officially supported mtp by default this was the most popular work around.
I have just discovered earlier today that adb push/pull works for getting things onto/off of my device, but I can't use adb to mount the device to allow it to be seen with a filemanager (thunar in this case). So, that's progress I think.
EDIT : I just saw mention somewhere of androidair, have yyou any experience with this app's reliability/security?