Kudos to @teidus for pointing me to this long-forgotten method.
Screenshots of proof are attached to my original post.
WARNING: You will lose a lot of data if you don't follow this guide!
WARNING: These operations require a rooted device. If you are running unrooted Android 4.3 or newer, you cannot proceed.
NOTE: All of these changes will be reversed if you flash a factory image that contains a partition table.
DISCLAIMER: I'm not responsible for bricked devices and data loss from power surges, hardware damage, or changes to the linked software. Always check the native manuals for all the tools listed here!
I'm also not responsible for your curiosity and desire to resize other partitions. I haven't tried that because messing with /system and /cache can lead to unexpected results.
1. Your device must currently have root access, CMW recovery v126.96.36.199 or later, less than 50% allocated to internal storage, emulated SD card (usually, it's /storage/sdcard0), and at least 8GB of total onboard memory. If you answered "No" to at least one of these, this guide won't help you. To check whether you have an emulated SD card, remove your physical SD card, go into a file manager app, and see whether you still have some sdcard listed.The Guide (skip all the way to the bottom for the short list of ADB commands):
2. A factory image flashing software for your device unzipped and/or installed on your computer. Look in the relevant forums for downloads.
3. ADB from either Android SDK or your device's flashing tool. Look in the relevant forums for instructions.
4. For locked bootloaders, factory firmware image with Android v4.1.2 or v4.0.x saved on your computer (consult your flashing tool's manual for the default location) - nearly 100% of these have root exploits. Look in the relevant forums for downloads.
5. Root exploit with Superuser or SuperSU installer for your device unzipped on your computer. Look in the relevant forums for downloads.
6. CMW recovery installer v188.8.131.52 or later compatible with your device and the factory firmware version obtained in step 4 unzipped on your computer. Look in the relevant forums for downloads.
7. File system utilities (attached) unzipped to a folder on your device's physical SD card you'll remember (I'll be using /fs-utils in this guide).
8. For Windows 8 users, ADB drivers for your device.
1. Back up all data stored on internal storage:
Option 1: Connect your device to the computer and save it to a computer drive.2. Back up your current installation with either Online Nandroid or your current recovery and remove the SD card for safety.
Option 2: Open a file manager on the device and copy it to a physical SD card (/sdcard1).
3. Flash your device with basic 4.1.2 install.
Refer to the documentation for your tool.4. Connect your device to the computer and let the computer recognize it.
5. Enable USB debugging.
5.1 Go to (System) Settings -> Developer options and flip the switch in the top-right corner of the screen.6. Root your device.
5.2 Look a bit down (toward the middle of the screen) and check USB debugging.
Refer to the documentation for your tool.7. Install recovery on your device.
Refer to the documentation for your tool.8. Boot into CMW recovery.
Depending on the device, reboot into recovery may be available in the power menu, or you'll need to press/hold a button during the power on sequence. Refer to the documentation for your recovery.9. After the device boots into recovery, connect it to the computer.
10. Start ADB shell in command prompt.
Navigate to the folder where adb.exe resides, hold SHIFT, right click the mouse, and select Open command window here, then type adb shell in the command prompt and press ENTER.11. Execute the following commands one-by-one (you can copy & paste, hit enter, and wait for the output):
umount /storage parted /dev/block/mmcblk0 print
These commands unmount all drives, launch parted utility for mmcblk0 (onboard flash storage), and display the partition table on your screen.12. Write down the info from the following columns for partitions Userdata and SDCard (or Media). Usually, they are the last 2 partitions.
Column 1 - Number, Column 2 - Start, Column 3 - End, Column 5 - File system, Column 6 - Name. The start of the first partition and the end of the second partition are the limits, within which your new partitions will be created. The numbers are in megabytes (MB) unless specified. Make sure the name is recorded just as it appears in the partition table - Andorid is case-sensitive.13. Remove the 2 partitions by executing the following commands:
Adjust the numbers according to your system.
rm 14 rm 15
For the first partition, the start point will be the same. For the second partition, the end point will be the same. The end point of the first partition is the start point of the second partition.15. Create and name new partitions by executing the following commands (don't copy the text in parentheses):
Take the end number for the first partition you recorded in step 12, add more space to get the new end. Alternatively, if your first partition is actually the emulated storage, subtract the reallocated space to get the new end point. I advise to add at least 2GB (2048MB) to Userdata feel safe about having enough storage for apps. DON'T TRY TO REMOVE EMULATED STORAGE ALTOGETHER BY ALLOCATING ALL OF THE AVAILABLE SPACE TO USERDATA! Emulated storage is coded into OS environment and requires additional modifications to work properly.
The system might throw several errors in the process. When prompted, just type ignore and hit ENTER.
mkpartfs logical ext2 OLD_START NEW_END (change ext2 to fat32 if the first partition had that file system) name 14 Userdata (change the number and the name according to your environment) mkpartfs logical ext2 NEW_START OLD_END (change ext2 to fat32 if the second partition had that file system; make sure to include GB as the designation of the end point in order to stretch the partition to the end of the onboard storage) name 15 SDCard (change the number and the name according to your environment) quit
These commands create the partitions with ext2 file system and given beginning and end parameters, rename them as required, and close parted.16. "Damage" the internal, emulated SD card so that it could be formatted properly later. REMOVE YOUR PHYSICAL SD CARD BEFORE THIS STEP TO AVOID WIPING THE WRONG CARD!!!
Tap Mounts and storage -> Format /storage/sdcard0 -> default and confirm the operation.17. Insert the physical SD card (sdcard1) that you removed in step 2 back into the device.
Make sure it's mounted by going to Mounts and storage and checking its status (it should say unmount /storage/sdcard1/). If not, mount it by executing on the appropriate option.18. Execute the following commands one-by-one in the ADB command prompt:
cd /storage/sdcard1/fs-utils (the directory name will be different if you didn't follow my conventions) tune2fs -j /dev/block/mmcblk0p14 (change the number in mmcblk0pXX according to your environment - that's the partition that need to have file system ext4 - refer to your notes from step 12) tune2fs -O extents,uninit_bg,dir_index /dev/block/mmcblk0p14 (change the number in mmcblk0pXX according to your environment) e2fsck -fpDC0 /dev/block/mmcblk0p14 (change the number in mmcblk0pXX according to your environment)
These commands convert Userdata partition into the appropriate ext4 filesystem, which is not supported natively in the recovery environment. If you receive any errors while executing these commands, reboot recovery.19. Reboot the device into full Android.
19.1 Remove the physical SD card for safety.20. When Android loads fully, you'll notice a notification about storage file system. Tap it and follow the prompts to format it.
19.2 Go to the top menu level of recovery. Then select the top option Reboot the device.
21. Insert the physical SD card and reboot into the recovery to restore the backup from step 2.
Backup and Restore -> Restore from /storage/sdcard1.22. Reboot back into full Android and copy the files saved from internal storage back into it. Then reboot again so that apps recognize the data.
Short guide/list of ADB commands and other events (*enclosed in asterisks*) if you know the safety drill & bash-based parted utility:
*flash 4.1.2 & install recovery* *boot recovery* adb shell umount /storage parted /dev/block/mmcblk0 print *record start point of Userdata and end point of SDCard* rm 15 (change the number according to your environment) rm 14 (change the number according to your environment) mkpartfs logical ext2 1621 7865 (change the numbers according to your environment) name 14 Userdata (change the number and the name according to your environment) mkpartfs logical ext2 7865 15.6GB (change the numbers according to your environment) name 15 SDCard (change the number and the name according to your environment) *remove physical SD card* *Mounts and storage -> Format /storage/sdcard0 -> default -> confirm* *insert physical SD card* *Mounts and storage -> Mount /storage/sdcard1* cd /storage/sdcard1/fs-utils tune2fs -j /dev/block/mmcblk0p14 (change the number in mmcblk0pXX according to your environment) tune2fs -O extents,uninit_bg,dir_index /dev/block/mmcblk0p14 (change the number in mmcblk0pXX according to your environment) e2fsck -fpDC0 /dev/block/mmcblk0p14 (change the number in mmcblk0pXX according to your environment) *remove physical SD card* *reboot* *format emulated SD card* *reboot recovery* *restore backup* *reboot* *restore sdcard0/* *reboot*