A list of commands with a quick summary on them.
This is the boot partition of your Android device, as the name suggests. It includes the android kernel and the ramdisk. The device will not boot without this partition. Wiping this partition from recovery should only be done if absolutely required and once done, the device must NOT be rebooted before installing a new one, which can be done by installing a ROM that includes a /boot partition.
As the name suggests, this partition contains the entire Android OS, other than the kernel and the ramdisk. This includes the Android GUI and all the system applications that come pre-installed on the device. Wiping this partition will remove Android from the device without rendering it unbootable, and you will still be able to put the phone into recovery or bootloader mode to install a new ROM.
This is specially designed for backup. The recovery partition can be considered as an alternative boot partition, that lets the device boot into a recovery console for performing advanced recovery and maintenance operations on it.
Again as the name suggest, it is called userdata partition. This partition contains the userís data like your contacts, sms, settings and all android applications that you have installed. While you are doing factory reset on your device, this partition will wipe out, Then your device will be in the state, when you use for he first time, or the way it was after the last official or custom ROM installation.
I hope you have some idea about cache, as you are expert on internet browsing. This is the partition where Android stores frequently accessed data and app components. Wiping the cache doesnít effect your personal data but simply gets rid of the existing data there, which gets automatically rebuilt as you continue using the device.
This partition contains miscellaneous system settings in form of on/off switches. These settings may include CID (Carrier or Region ID), USB configuration and certain hardware settings etc. This is an important partition and if it is corrupt or missing, several of the deviceís features will will not function normally.