Wait, you are mixing things up! Your Xperia Z1 Charger does supply 1500 mA (which means 1,5 Ampere) of current at 5,0V DC.
Your Xperia S Battery has a Capacity of 1650 mAh (or 1,65 Ampere Hours) which means that it can supply 1,65 Ampere of continuous current for 1 hour (at 5V, I guess)
So: Yes, you can use a bigger charger and it will charge your phone faster, in this case nearly twice as fast. This will not damage your phone, as it will (as already said) just take the maximum current it can make use of.