It's always a very tense moment for me whenever I use ODIN. It's not that hard to brick your phone with it so I'm always on the edge of my seat. Still, if you have everything set up properly it should never be an issue. Since ODIN actually said "pass" then I'm thinking either:
a) You flashed the file onto the wrong partition
b) You flashed a file meant for a different phone
I'm leaning toward b since I'm assuming you read directions carefully and only flashed to the PDA portion. Do you have a link to the website or forum topic from which you got the root instructions? The behavior you're describing is very similar to what happens when people flash a file meant for the International version of the S3.
Current Phone: Samsung Galaxy S III
Current ROM: CarbonRom
Current Kernel: Leankernel
Previous Phone: Samsung Droid Charge (sold)