I will add the new roms that came out recently soon.
Root - Rooting you phone means (in simple terms) you own all functionality of you phone, you gain administration rights on you phone.
Custom Rom - These are tweaked/modified roms which are most likely add more functionality e.g. better apps, faster UI etc.
xRecovery/CWM - Allows you to install custom roms and do many other things.
Kernel - Enables communication between software and hardware. Look at it this way if you are able to understand someone better than another person you will be able to do what is asked, it is the same with the kernel(To understand why to have a custom kernel).
To install custom rom:
1)Download a custom rom and place in sd card.
4)Reboot phone and tap the back button to enter recovery.
All files necessary can be found below
Flash Tool and official firmwares
Root phone and CWM package.- Packed by me.
Unlock Boot loader - Make Sure you not locked to your carrier
Lord AIO Tool
18/03/2012 S.E 2.1.1.Clean V6
10/01/2012 RS v 0.2 [2.1.1]
31/10/2011 MOD BlackS v 2.0
6/11/2011 MiniCM7Pro - V 21
8/12/2011 Flame.GDX ICS V 2.3.7 Nightly
11/23/2011 CyanoCream Sandwich V 2.0
10/25/2011 GinTonic.SE v2.5.1
15/01/2012 GingerDX pro v21b
18/11/2011 SonyStyle - V1.1 FINAL
12/12/2011 StornMix V2-X8 Port
17/01/2012 ArcMini X Remake
07/03/2012 [ROM]PrimeHD V2
31/03/2012 XMP Rom V9
27/03/2012 Simplexity v2.1
v4.0.x Ice Cream Sandwich
25/03/2012 CyanogenMod 9 - V02 KANG
25/02/2012 [ROM] MiUi v4 for X10 Mini Pro - V02
SimpleKernel - 1.4
Fa kernel 0.5
Unified Remote client, Server -Multiple remotes.
SoundWire client, Server -Use your phone as a wireless headset for ur PC.
WakeOnLan -Starts up pc with one touch.
Viber -A good communication app, free calls and smsing for viber users.
Emulators -Snes,Game Boy,Gen,etc.
Opera mini -Compresses webpages
Mini ICS theme-ICS theme for MiniCM7-2.1.7, install guide in download-lock screen and skin.
It was damn hard to find those pictures, bare with it
View you phones data via ftp, download My FTP Server and load a ftp client like FileZilla for your PC.