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[Guide] How to use Github

8th September 2012, 08:32 PM   |  #1  
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Hi.
Today I would like to show you how to use github. I'm not an expert (I'm rather n00b TBH ) but I learned some things and might help you with simple git commands.

1. Github? What's that?

In short it's the web-based hosting service for software development projects that use the Git revision control system. In English - the place where you store your sources.



2. Creating an account.
  • 2.0 Download the required libs
    Code:
    sudo apt-get install git
  • 2.1 Create an account on github.com website
  • 2.2 In terminal type:
    Code:
    git config --global user.name "Your Name Here"
    git config --global user.email "your_email@youremail.com"
    NOTE: use the e-mail used in the website account creation
    2.3 Create your unique SSH public key
    Code:
    ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "your_email@youremail.com"
    # Creates a new ssh key using the provided email
    # Generating public/private rsa key pair.
    # Enter file in which to save the key (/c/Users/you/.ssh/id_rsa): [Press enter]
    Now you need to enter a passphrase.
    Code:
    # Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): [Type a passphrase]
    # Enter same passphrase again: [Type passphrase again]
    Which should give you something like this:
    Code:
    # Your identification has been saved in /c/Users/you/.ssh/id_rsa.
    # Your public key has been saved in /c/Users/you/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
    # The key fingerprint is:
    # 01:0f:f4:3b:ca:85:d6:17:a1:7d:f0:68:9d:f0:a2:db your_email@youremail.com
    Now go to ~/.ssh folder and copy your id_rsa.pub content into account administration on github.com


    ... and check if everything works

    Code:
    ssh -T git@github.com
    Code:
    The authenticity of host 'github.com (207.97.227.239)' can't be established.
    # RSA key fingerprint is 16:27:ac:a5:76:28:2d:36:63:1b:56:4d:eb:df:a6:48.
    # Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
    Duh?! Sure I want! Yes! Yes! Yessss!

    Code:
    # Hi username! You've successfully authenticated, but GitHub does not
    # provide shell access.

And we are ready to do some serious things!

3. Forking a repo

As an example I'll use https://github.com/CyanogenMod/andro..._apps_Settings
Open this link in the browser and click fork.


  • 3.1 Clone the source from your fork.
    I use my account as an example.

    Code:
    git clone git://github.com/eagleeyetom/android_packages_apps_Settings.git -b gingerbread
    -b gingerbread let us to choose what branch are we going to download


  • 3.2 Do some changes!

    For example add files, remove them etc.
  • 3.3 Commit the changes

    OPTIONAL I created new branch at my project and named it "xda"
    To do this go to the cloned folder and type:
    Code:
    git branch xda
    git checkout xda
    Now it's time to see what's going on:
    Magic command
    Code:
    git status


    As you can see I removed few files and added one.

    Now it's time to tell the git what we want to do.

    4. Pushing the changes

    Add all modified files:
    Code:
    git add .
    Add all removed files
    Code:
    git add -u
    You can also add/rm one file
    Code:
    git add name_of_file
    git rm name_of_file
    After git status we should get something like this:



    Now it's time to commit:

    Code:
    git commit -m 'my first commit'
    And finally to push:

    Code:
    git push
    If you'll get some errors use the following:

    Code:
    git push git@github.com:eagleeyetom/android_packages_apps_Settings.git xda
    I used the name of my github and the name of the branch in the end.



    Woo hoo! Now let's check the website.


That's the most basic basics
In the next posts I will show you some more advanced commands like merge, cherry-pick, removing branches etc.


Credits:
Google
Github Team
All my friends from GingerDX IRC channel

If you find it useful hit thanks button. You can also consider a small donation
Last edited by eagleeyetom; 9th September 2012 at 01:23 PM.
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8th September 2012, 08:38 PM   |  #2  
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5. Removing branch.
This one took me a lot of googleing and many bad words has been said

I'll make a test branch 'deleteme'

Code:
git branch deleteme
git checkout deleteme
git push git@github.com:eagleeyetom/android_packages_apps_Settings.git deleteme
And I have new remote branch now.
But I want to delete it.
Here's the answer.
First:
Check the branches:
Code:
git branch -a
And I'll get:
Code:
  remotes/origin/HEAD -> origin/gingerbread
  remotes/origin/deleteme
  remotes/origin/donut
  remotes/origin/eclair
  remotes/origin/froyo
  remotes/origin/froyo-stable
  remotes/origin/gb-release-7.2
  remotes/origin/gingerbread
  remotes/origin/gingerbread-release
  remotes/origin/ics
  remotes/origin/icsify
  remotes/origin/wip
  remotes/origin/xda
I want to delete this branch.
Type:
Code:
git branch -rd origin/deleteme
# Deleted remote branch origin/deleteme (was 808ffbb).
Code:
git push git@github.com:eagleeyetom/android_packages_apps_Settings.git :refs/heads/deleteme
And the remote branch is gone! Yeah!

6. Merging the commits
Imagine the situation that you want to add a commits created by someone else. Let's use our great Recognized Developer nobodyAtall

We need to add the source:
Code:
git remote add upstream https://github.com/MiniCM/android_packages_apps_Settings.git
Download the branch:
Code:
git fetch upstream
Code:
* [new branch]      cm-9.0.0   -> upstream/cm-9.0.0
 * [new branch]      donut      -> upstream/donut
 * [new branch]      eclair     -> upstream/eclair
 * [new branch]      froyo      -> upstream/froyo
 * [new branch]      froyo-stable -> upstream/froyo-stable
 * [new branch]      gb-release-7.2 -> upstream/gb-release-7.2
 * [new branch]      gingerbread -> upstream/gingerbread
 * [new branch]      gingerbread-release -> upstream/gingerbread-release
 * [new branch]      ics        -> upstream/ics
 * [new branch]      jellybean  -> upstream/jellybean
 * [new branch]      master     -> upstream/master
 * [new branch]      wip        -> upstream/wip

You'll get a message to resolve the conflicts. In short and most n00b friendly way is to open pointed files and delete the:
<<<<<<<<
=======
>>>>>>>>
symbols.

Don't forget to test make before pushing!

Now standard procedure:
Code:
git add .
git commit -m 'test merge'
git push git@github.com:eagleeyetom/android_packages_apps_Settings.git xda
7. Cherry-pick the single commit
Now it's time to add specific commit to our build. I'm going to use this one.
Code:
git remote add upstream https://github.com/MiniCM/android_packages_apps_Settings.git
git fetch upstream
git cherry-pick c95854e8c91ec279bd3719c637f531491855278a
And we're good
Now commit should be added. All you need now is to push - no need to commit

8. Changing the branch
While using git you may noticed that sometimes after fresh sync there is no branch selected. Imagine the situation when you are on a branch A and want to check to branch B, because it uses a different method (like framework patch etc.)
The solution is pretty simple.
Code:
git checkout -t remote_name/remote_branch
It allows you to change the branch to remote one without cloning the whole repo again.
Last edited by eagleeyetom; 9th November 2012 at 10:00 AM.
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8th September 2012, 08:39 PM   |  #3  
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Pull request

If you feel that you have fixed a problem and want to help the developer to make his own ROM/kernel etc. you should consider to make a pull request. Pull request adds the changes you have made to the others repo.

First of all.
Fork and clone destined repo.
Check the previous post about forking and cloning.
Now make some changes and upload it to your own remote git.

Then, go to your forked repo using browser and click on Pull request.



Then choose the account and branch to pull-request.



Click and wait for your request to be merged

Merging a pull request.
Sometimes someone wants to add something to your code.
You'll be notified by e-mail and also see the notification on your github website.

Go there and click Open



When the changes can't be merged you'll see such message:



But when it's green, you are ready to merge it



Don't forget to review the code. In other way you'll be forced to delete the commit.

You can also use text method:

Code:
git checkout master
# Check out your master branch
git remote add TeamFun git://github.com/TeamFun/android_packages_apps_Settings.git
# Add a new remote named 'TeamFun'
git fetch TeamFun
# Pull in all the commits from the 'cameronmcefee' remote
git merge TeamFun/gingerbread
# Merge your master branch into the 'gingerbread' branch from the 'TeamFun' remote
git push git@github.com:eagleeyetom/android_packages_apps_Settings.git master
# Push your newly-merged branch back to GitHub
or

Code:
git checkout master
# Check out your master branch
$ curl http://github.com/octocat/Spoon-Knife/pull/25.patch | git am
# Grab the patch generated by a pull request and feed it into a new commit
$ git push git@github.com:eagleeyetom/android_packages_apps_Settings.git master
# Push your newly-updated commit back to GitHub
TIPS AND TRICKS

REVERT CHANGES

To discard all unstaged changes e.g. failed merge etc. type:
Code:
git checkout .
# to delete all changes

git checkout path/to/file

# to discard changes for a specific file
You can also use:
Code:
rm -rf ./ 

# deletes all of the files in the directory

git reset --hard

#This is going to restore the git to the previous state
HOW TO REMOVE COMMITTED CHANGES?

To remove committed changes you have to revert the commit. But how to do that? It's your answer

Code:
git reset HEAD --hard
HEAD is the previous commit. To revert to previous state use HEAD~1, HEAD~2 etc. you can also use the code taken from git log.

GIT PATCH AND GIT APPLY

Now I want to make a patch file to e.g. send an e-mail with my commited changes.

First I need to find a changes made by a commit. To do this I need to know commit ID.
Code:
git log --oneline #This would show the commit ID's
Now pick the commit for example 22a95d1 and use git show to make a patch

Code:
git show 22a95d1 > patchname.patch
And I got patch, but how to apply it?
The answer is easy. Use git apply.

Code:
git apply patchname.patch
# --check checks if the patch can be applied
FORCE PUSH
Sometimes github doesn't want to cooperate - just like some people
You can force it by adding --force or -f
Code:
git push -f git@github.com:eagleeyetom/android_packages_apps_Settings.git master
n00b method to add changes after failed push.
Clone the repo and delete everything but .git directory. Then copy modified content, commit and push :P
Last edited by eagleeyetom; 24th October 2012 at 02:56 PM.
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8th September 2012, 08:44 PM   |  #4  
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guide-man funs! :P
8th September 2012, 08:55 PM   |  #5  
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Oh I needed this. Thanks EET!
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9th September 2012, 01:47 AM   |  #6  
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Thanks man really needed this !
9th September 2012, 03:02 AM   |  #7  
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Wow... this is also exactly what I would want! Thanks EET!

SEARCH. ASK. TEST... not the other way round! - lucastan96

Sent With My Brains To Yours
9th September 2012, 06:28 AM   |  #8  
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Great. Now i'll know what i'm doing wrong. :thumbup:

Please give credit where credit is due..
If you can't even search how can I help you??
9th September 2012, 07:13 AM   |  #9  
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Thanks bro needed this !
9th September 2012, 07:43 AM   |  #10  
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Wow... this is what i exactly learning too ! Thanks mate...

my current stage
repo branching and remote branching
im using merging conflict Kdiff3(downloaded from website)
  1. Add the KDiff3 directory to your Windows System Path (e.g. C:\Program Files\KDiff3\)
  2. Add kdiff3 as your Git mergetool (From Git Bash, run git config --global merge.tool kdiff3)
  3. Add kdiff3 complete path to Git Config
    (From Git Bash, run git config --global mergetool.kdiff3.path "C:/Program Files/KDiff3/kdiff3.exe")
  4. Go into Git GUI settings and set the mergetool to kdiff3 (if Git GUI doesn't pick up this setting from git config, which it should)

git config --global diff.tool KDiff3

git config --global difftool.KDiff3.path "C:/Program Files/KDiff3/kdiff3.exe"

git config --global merge.tool KDiff3

git config --global mergetool.KDiff3.path "C:/Program Files/KDiff3/kdiff3.exe"


then type,

git mergetool

it will auto bring to your Kdiff3
Last edited by AndroXperia; 9th September 2012 at 08:03 AM.

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