In response to d_dan's thread I have decided to start putting together a glossary for android related terms/abbreviations. Feel free to reply with ones you would like added/modified as the list I'm beginning with is rather short. I will monitor the thread regularly and incorporate them into the original post, contributions will be duly credited.
adb : Android Debug Bridge, a command-line application included in the SDK. Allows you to run certan commands on the phone from your computer over USB as well as pull/push files.
BART : Backup And Restore Tool, similar to Nandroid but with more customization options for advanced users.
Cook : To create a ROM for a certain device.
Emulator: A program that pretends its certain hardware/software running on another device.
Flash : To write a ROM/Radio/SPL/etc to a device.
Nandroid: A backup/restore tool that creates an image of your phone's software guts which can be reapplied if something goes wrong.
Radio : Clarification on this requested, I know it has something to do with the connectivity to your provider. WARNING: Mucking around with it can brick your phone in certain situations!
recovery: Booted into by holding the "Home" button while booting the phone, a custom recovery image allows Nandroid backups, console access, wipes and much more.
SDK : Source Developer Kit, Contains tools to create things for Android, also includes adb and an android emulator.
SPL : Secondary Program Loader, loads the android OS. WARNING!: Mucking around with it can brick your phone in certain situations!
Terminal: A way to run certain commands on your phone, like CMD on a windows platform.
Samsung Galaxy S3 GT-I9300
PhilZ Touch 4.91.5