Sorry guys, I'm at work so my replies are delayed.
Your problems are caused by the fact that ALL Linux wireless drivers require firmware. Windows does too, but they are provided by the manufacturer. Go into the Network Devices->Network Settings. Select your wireless card, hit Edit, then configure it. After you configure the card it SHOULD tell you that it needs to install a package called kernel-firmware or bcmsomethingsomething. If not, let me know.
As for why Ubuntu doesn't require this I am uncertain. This is suppose to be a restriction for all Linux vendors, however some may license the firmware from the manufacturers, but I doubt that.