WARNING: Make a nandroid backup in TWRP before you start modifying your /system partition. If you screw anything up, you can go back to a known good state.
Get the latest 1.1 Google Dialer APK from here: http://www.androidpolice.com/2014/06...-apk-download/
Follow the instructions over on Android Police, but make sure you remount the system partition as read-write before trying to copy the file into /system/priv-app: http://www.androidpolice.com/2013/12...-what-can-i-do
Here's the short version:
Remount your /system partition read-write
mount -o rw,remount /dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/system /system
In order to launch the dialer, you need to create a shortcut. I have Nova, so it's pretty easy to do there. Create new shortcut, activities, Google Dialer, and pick the first Phone entry (check out the link above for screen shots on how to do this).
You will be able to use the Dialer to make calls (look up businesses or use your contacts), but once you select a number to dial, it will use the stock dialer. Incoming calls will also be handled by the stock dialer, so we lose on the ability to use Google's Caller ID for now.