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[guide]how to build/modify roms for samsung devices [7.0/6.0.1/maybe more]

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Firstly, by no means, I am a great developer or an expert. I have been developing ROMS for Samsung Galaxy Note 5 lately. I was also a noob before making all this. But by reading various guides on XDA, learning from many many great developers/contributors on our Note 5 Forums and talking with various friends which I made on XDA, I know quite a bit about ROMS and MODDING in general. So, here I would like to share all which I have learnt so far, and will be updating this guide regularly.


I am not all responsible for what you do to your device, whether you blow it up, or you got late to reach your office, coz alarm never sounded, or your girl friend dumps you for not picking her phone(boy friend never do that:-p).. Neither me nor XDA is responsible for that.


  • My brother, my teacher, my great friend, @andyaguilar94, who was the first I contacted ever via a PM and he was so kind to teach me stuffs and helped me learn whatever I have learnt today.... Thanks a lot bro...
  • @CrsMthw and @Androidwizzard, for always helping me solving my issues with the ROM and being so so so and so humble to listen to all my crap and being a constant support to me...
  • @karan2012, @pelpa87, @Ather, @diegonnec for being my great friends, helping me out in various things, pointing out my silly mistakes and being there for me anytime I needed them...
  • @ASSAYYED and @zxz0O0 for their Awesome tools (Kitchen and SamFirm)
  • If I forgot to mention anyone, I would love to add them to this list...


  • TWRP or any other Recovery installed on a rooted Samsung device
  • NotePad++
  • WinRAR or 7-ZIP
  • A Good knowledge of Windows Explorer
  • A Samsung Device to test on
  • A bit of patience and a lot of time

Before beginning, I would like to tell you guys that this is not a guide to PORT some other device's ROM to your own device. This is just a guide to modify your own device's latest firmware available and making your own ROMS... Secondly, this should work on most Samsung Devices and most of the Android versions including Marshmallow (6.0.1) and Nougat (7.0) and could work on other versions as well


Okay, now coming back to guide, this guide will be divided in 5 sections:-
  1. Creating a very basic ROM using Kitchen
  2. Adding Basic Mods to the ROM (using CSC and Kitchen)
  3. Learning about updater-script syntax and adding external features to the ROM
  4. Learning about adding AROMA and about aroma-config syntax
  5. Last but not the least, some tips and tricks to make your ROM even awesome


Okay so, there are two ways of developing a ROM:-
1)Without a kitchen
2)With a kitchen (RECOMMENDED)

I will cover the method using a kitchen as it is much more efficient and time saving. Futhermore, Without a kitchen method only works for already available flashable ROMS, whereas a kitchen allows making a ROM directly from the firmware zip file.


Okay so, kitchens are basically designed to make the life of ROM Developers a lot simplers. All the functions that a kitchen offers, can actually be accomplished using File Explorer as well. But, it would require whole lot of efforts and time. So, therefore, most of the devs out there, use one of many amazing kitchens available. For this guide, we will be using ASSAYYED KITCHEN (I know, that its development is stopped, but it has a great lot of features that are available in an easy to understand way...)

So, first things first, lets download and install ASSAYYED KITCHEN

Step 1:- Download the ASSAYYED KITCHEN from this official thread, by clicking here.
Step 2:- Once downloaded, then copy the 7zip file to whichever directory you want to install this kitchen on your PC.
Step 3:- Then extract the zip file using 7zip of WinRAR.
Step 4:- If you didnt change the name of the zip file, you should see a folder named "ASSAYYED_KITCHEN_V1.82_STABLE", once extraction is completed.
Step 5:- Inside this folder, you should see a folder named "TOOLS" and an exe file named "ASSAYYED". Run this exe file. Once it is loaded, you should see a black screen with a prethora of options.
Step 6:- Now go back to the ASSAYYED Directory, where you had the "TOOLS" and this exe file, and you will be surprised to see three new folders:- "PLACE", "READY" and "WORK".

Okay so, we are done setting up the kitchen, now before we begin our actual ROM Development/Modification, let me explain you what are these folders and what do they do.

"PLACE" folder contains the base ROM zip files or your firmware zip files. This folder essentially contains the base ROM/FIRMWARE, that you are going to work upon. You will need to put the firmware zip (which I will tell you where to get) in this folder. This firmware will act as the base, on which you will make modifications and make your own ROM
"READY" folder will contain your ROM zip files. This essentially has your ROM zips that you will make and flash on your device
"WORK" folder contains the ROM files. As the name suggests, this folder is the one, we will be working on. This contains the entire ROM files (which I will explain later)
"TOOLS" folder is nothing we have to worry about for now. It essentially contains some important files and applications we might need.

As you must have seen, the kitchen has various options, and I can't explain all of them in one go, so I will explain them as we proceed through the guide.
So, finally we are done with the kitchen and stuffs, now lets download the firmware for your latest device. Well, let me share with you, how I download firmware files...

Firstly, download SamFirm Tool, by clicking here and selecting the latest zip from Post #1. Again, this is a depreciated tool, but it is important for downloading firmwares at high speed, because otherwise, if you download it from any website, they might charge you, or make the zip file available at slower speeds.

Secondly, head to this website, and in the dropdown menu, select your device and check (dont download) for the latest firmware available for your Model Number and note the "Model" and "Region".

Step 1:- Once downloaded, extract the file (I told you to download above) in your desired directory.
Step 2:- In the extracted folder (which should be "SamFirm_v0.3.1"), you should see a few files, but dont touch any of them, just launch the "SamFirm.exe".
Step 3:- A new window will open and in that window, you should see two columns namely, "Firmware Info" and "Download".
Step 4:- Put the "Model" and "Region" (which I told you to make a note of) in their respective sections inside "Firmware Info". Tick on "Auto"(If it is unchecked)
Step 5:- Click on "Check Update". After this, it will process about the latest firmware and will eventually fill the details in the "Download" column.
Step 6:- After this, you know the obvious step, click on "Download". Now sit back and relax, till the firmware is downloaded
Step 7:- Once the firmware is downloaded, you should click on "Decrypt".
Step 8:- After this, get to the "SamFirm_v0.3.1" directory (which contained the "SamFirm.exe"), and you should see a zip file.
Step 9:- Copy and paste this zip file in "PLACE" folder of ASSAYYED kitchen (that we talked about earlier).

Now finally, we have our firmware and kitchen in place, Now lets begin ROM DEVELOPMENT


Step 1:- Launch "ASSAYYED.exe" from your kitchen directory.
Step 2:- As you can see, from various options, we need to begin with the very first option that is, "START CREATING PROJECT". In ASSAYYED, we select options, by typing the number next to the option we want, and pressing Enter. So, for example, we need to select "START CREATING PROJECT", we know the number corresponding to it is "1", so we press 1 and then ENTER.
Step 3:- After this, it basically asks Where to Get the Firmware, now, we know it is in "PLACE" folder and we see that the corresponding to "PLACE_FOLDER" is default. Now, I would like you to remember that specifically for this guide, wherever you see the word "default" in the kitchen, you just need to press Enter keeping it blank. So, I hope you got this.
Step 4:- Now the kitchen will search in the "PLACE" folder for the necessary zip. Select the required firmware by pressing the number corresponding to it and then enter. For example, for your very first project, it will be "1", then enter.
Step 5:- Now type the NAME of your Project. You can keep it anything or even leave it blank by pressing enter. Now sit back, relax, take a break and let the kitchen do its work.
Step 6:- Once Extraction is complete, you should see something like "PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE". So Press Enter and now minimise the kitchen and head to the "WORK" Folder.

Now, explanation time , once you open the "WORK" folder, you should be greeted with 2 folders and a file.

First would be a "META-INF" folder. This is the directory which TWRP or any other recovery looks for when you intend to flash anything. This folder is a MUST, without which no matter how good a ROM is, you will never be able to flash it using a recovery...
Next would be a "system" folder. This is the directory which contains the main ROM, this will be the folder where we will be making small edits in various files to get various mods. Essentially, you can consider this folder as the full ROM itself.
Lastly, there would a file by the name of "boot" or "boot.img". This file is essentially the stock kernel of your ROM. This is also an essential part of your ROM zip and you must tamper with this file unless you know what you are doing

Now navigate inside the system folder. Here you will see loads of subfolders.

Let me explain you about the contents of "system" folder:
"app" folder, as the name suggests, contains various apps and services which will run on your ROM. If you navigate to this app folder, you will see another a huge list of subfolders. These subfolders contains apks for the apps.
"cameradata" folder contains various files which are essential for the camera to work.
"csc" folder is a folder which would be gem for modders. Most of the mods that you want in the ROM could be just be added with a single line, by modifying a file or two in this folder.
"fonts" contains the various fonts which will be used in the ROM.
"framework" folder is a very essential part of the ROM. It includes various jars and a few apks which are very essential for a ROM to function well.
"lib" folder contains various lib files for the ROM. And one thing to keep in mind would be to NEVER tamper with "lib64" folder, because, if you do so, your ROM might never boot, however "lib" folder can be modified to some extent like deknoxing (which I will tell you about in future posts)
"media" folder contains audio files including ringtones, notification tones, alarm tones and other System sounds
"priv-app" folder contains another set of "privilaged apps". Privilaged, because, they require some special permissions to work
"build.prop" is the most important file in your ROM. Without this file, your ROM will NEVER-EVER boot.

Step 7:- Lets first start by changing your ROM NAME. Inside the system folder, head to build.prop file and open it with NotePad++. (A tip, we usually refer adresses instead of putting them in words like I just did, so from now on, I will say, for example, head to system/build.prop)
Step 8:- Find this "" in build.prop (It should be in first few lines). Then after "=", there will be a string of alpha-numeric characters. For eg, in my case, it is "N920CXXU3CQD1". You might be having something different depending on your device. You can change this string to anything you want, for example in my N-FUEL Rom, I have put it as "N-FUEL-XL1-N920CXXU3CQD1". Hope, you got the idea.
Step 9:- Now its time to flash your ROM. But hey, before flashing, you need a ROM zip, right. So head to the ASSAYYED kitchen and Look for "BUILD ROM FOR FLASHING"(Hint:- It is the 7th option). So as you know, we will type "7", then press Enter.
Step 10:- Now since, we want a zip, and the number corresponding to a "ZIP" is "3". So type 3 and then enter. After this, it will ask you to review updater-script (I will tell you about updater-script and its syntax later in the guide), for now, leave it "N0", that is "default" (You know what to do when you see default). After this, it might ask you to zipalign apks. You can select this as "YES".
Step 11:- Then, you should always keep the compress level to "5"(which is "default", as you can see). Then you will see that it is making the zip file. Then it will ask you to name your ROM zip. Once done
Step 12:- Once completed, it will ask you to sign the zip, it is optional, however, I never signed my ROM zips though.
Step 13:- Okay so, finally!! You have gone through the tough journey and are now on the verge of testing your own ROM. So, go ahead and go to the "READY" directory. You will see your very first build there.
Step 14:- Now go ahead and put this zip in your Internal Storage and go to your recovery. First backup your current ROM or data. Then wipe system, cache, dalvik and data from your Recovery and finally FLASH YOUR ROM!!!

In the next post, I will be talking about Odexed and Deodexed ROMS, Debloating stuffs and few other things... so stay tuned
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2nd June 2017, 06:47 PM |#2  
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Hey guys, now, coming back to the guide, I want to tell you that the sole purpose of modifying/developing a custom ROM is to remove the amazing loads of BLOAT, that Samsung has to offer us. If you downloaded the firmware, that I told you about in the first post, you must have noted the huge size of the official firmware (In my case, it was around 1.9 GB!!). On the other hand, if you see around, most of the ROMS are much less in size than the official firmware. So, let me make an equation, that you can remember for life long, till you are developing a ROM



So keeping this mind, the first thing you should do, while developing a ROM, is to remove this BLOAT. Now, BLOAT, you can consider it to be extra apps that you see on your device, which you NEVER-EVER use, and they just sit there on your device, taking up all the space that you need and using up your battery by keeping their background services active all the time. So, let's first recognize, what is this BLOAT.

You can consider all the Microsoft Apps (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Skype etc etc), at least, they were a Bloat for our NOTE 5 device. Don't get me wrong, they are amazing applications, but on PC. I never used them on my Device. Furthermore, you can consider a few of Google apps as BLOAT as well. For example. Play Music, you are already getting a music app from Samsung, so why keep two? Like this, many of Samsung apps like Samsung Pay (which you probably can't use as you rooted your device) and many others. Hope you got the idea.

Now, since you recognized the BLOAT, the next step would be to know, where is this. Now, I told you above that the BLOAT is essentially the apps in the ROM. So, from Post #1, you must be knowing that apps are located in "system/app" and system/priv-app. But remember one thing, ALL THE APPS ARE NOT BLOAT. You can head to this directory and look for various folders (These folders contains the apk files for the apps, as I told you earlier), but DON'T delete anything now.

Now you know what is BLOAT and where it is, now you need to understand, how to remove this BLOAT. So, there are two ways to do this, and in actual ROM Development, I am sure, you will use both the methods.

So here are the two methods:-
1)Using a kitchen
2)Using File Explorer

Using a File Explorer is as simple as going to "system/app" (or "system/priv-app") and deleting the respective folder, but,


I consider this to be the safest method and you would also know it, just stick with me and follow the steps...

Step 1:- Launch ASSAYYED Kitchen and look for the option "DEBLOATING THE ROM". So, in order to select it, you know what to do, Press "11" and enter.

So now, explanation time.

Now, in ASSAYYED, there is a method by which the kitchen "DEBLOATS" apps from your ROM. It does it by knowing the EXACT NAME OF THE APK stored in a TEXT FILE. These text files are located in "TOOLS/txt_files"(in your kitchen directory)

I would like you to open "kushan_debloat_list" in this directory (that is "TOOLS/txt_files"). Once you open this file, you will see a huge load to names of files with an extension ".apk". So, a kitchen uses this type of files with apk names, then it searches the full ROM for the apks and delete those whose names match with those in the list. So I hope you got the idea. The kitchen has some pre-loaded debloat list, which we can use for now. However, you can create your own ones, or download a "SAFE" debloat list for your specific device, and use that. Just put, your own text file in "TOOLS/txt_files", and you will be good to go, now lets move to Step 2.

Step2:- Okay so, now we need to select out Debloat Txt file from the list. So, we will SELECT "CHOOSE_LIST" from ASSAYYED Menu.
Step 3:- Now you will see the list of available Debloat List (PRE-LOADED ONES). For now, select "ASSAYYED KITCHEN LIST". Now, sit back and relax, until the Kitchen DEBLOATS the ROM.
Step 4:- Once complete, Press Enter. and now navigate to your WORK Folder. In this, you should see a new folder namely "BLOAT". Now, I told you a lie earlier (Sorry for that). The kitchen doesnt delete the apks. It just separates the BLOAT from your ROM.

Once you open this BLOAT folder, you should see some subfolders, and you can easily guess what they contain.

Now, in order to make your ROM smaller in size, you need to remove this BLOAT folder. I would recommend moving this folder to a new directory for now, instead of fully deleting it.

Okay, so now your ROM is DEBLOATED!!

Now, you can BUILD the ROM for flashing, like I taught you in Post #1 and flash it, you will see many apps will be removed from your app drawer, once the ROM is booted. So, now ENJOY YOUR DEBLOATED ROM

So, you have learned about Debloating your ROM, now let me tell you somethings about ODEXED AND DEODEXED ROMS


Well, it is essentially the apps that are ODEXED or DEODEXED and not the ROM in general.
Let's first learn about what is an ODEXED app. Well, ODEXED apps, basically are pre-optimized apps, they don't need to be optimized on every reboot, or after wiping cache or even after clean ROM install. Pre-optimized apps are also more stable as they won't get any chance of error while optimizing. When you pre-optimize an app, it's optimization details stored in a separate folder called "odex". So system accesses that and knows how an app works before opening the app or while booting the ROM. Therefore, on a fresh install, it is always noted that ODEXED ROMS boot a lot faster than DEODEXED ROMS.

On the other hand, DEODEXED apps are not pre-optimized. Once you deodex an app, the information stored in the odex folder is removed and the system has to optimize an app every time the ROM boots. This is the reason why a DEODEXED ROM boots slower in comparison with an ODEXED ROM.

But hey, that doesn't mean that ODEXED ROMS are better than DEODEXED ROMS. If you want a whole lot of MODS in your ROM, it is must that you DEODEX it. without DEODEXING an app, you cant make much modifications, and if you did, it will result in Force Closes and a whole lot of errors. I always prefer to DEODEX my ROMS. Inface, both my ROMS (N-FUEL-V4 and N-FUEL-XL1) are DEODEXED. The choice is upto you, whether you want faster boot-up times and all that speed or you want amazing MODS in your ROM.

So, I hope, you got to know a bit about ODEXED and DEODEXED ROMS. One thing, I would like to tell you is that the firmware, you downloaded, will always be ODEXED, as Samsung always keeps their firmware ODEXED for faster boot-up times and stability. So, we need to DEODEX it (if you want to have a DEODEXED Rom)

If you want to know more about ODEXED and DEODEXED, you can click here and read from this amazing guide Now let me tell you, how to DEODEX a ROM


Step 1:- Launch ASSAYYED kitchen and search for "DEODEXING PROJECT". Then go ahead and select it.
Step 2:- Select Yes, if it asks for confirmation. Now sit back and relax, and let the kitchen do its work.

Pretty simple eh So you have DEODEXED your ROM. Now, for this last section of this post, I will tell you about DEKNOXING the ROM, which is essential to do, and you will know why in the next section.


The newer Samsung firmwares (maybe after 5.1.1) come with a secured BOOTLOADER. Basically, if we root our device or try to tamper with the official firmware, there is a Knox warranty which gets void. And once it gets void, there is no way (at least that's what people say) to get it back.

This KNOX warranty ensures that your device is running official firmware with no modifications. Therefore, once you root your device, KNOX warranty gets voided and as a result, you pretty much can't use official firmware on your device and if you did, the system will show high battery usage or other such effects. You can learn more about this from here.

Now since you know the adverse affects of Knox, it is better to remove it from your ROM.

Step 1:- Launch ASSAYYED kitchen and select "DEKNOXING THE ROM". Let it do its work and Press Enter when completed.

But hey, that's not enough. We need to follow some additional steps to fully DEKNOX the ROM.

Step 2:- Navigate to "system/app" inside the "WORK" folder, look for any folder containing the word "Knox" and delete them.
Step 3:- Now navigate to "system/lib", and search for "libknox" and delete the files that show up (around 5 or 6 files should be there)

Remember to delete the above file from "lib" and NOT from "lib64"

Step 4:- Open the build.prop file. (It is in system folder inside WORK)
Step 5:- In the build.prop file, search for "ro.config.knox". This value should be equal to something (in my case it was v30). Change this something to 0, so that the full line becomes "ro.config.knox=0".
Step 6:- Now search for "ro.config.tima". This value should be equal to 1. Change it to 0, so that the full line becomes "ro.config.tima=0".

So that's it, you finally have DEBLOATED, DEODEXED AND DEKNOXED ROM!!

You can now go ahead and BUILD THE ROM FOR FLASHING. Then once the ROM boots, enjoy your hardwork

Now, this is it... We have fully completed the first part of the GUIDE.... that is, CREATING A VERY BASIC ROM USING KITCHEN. In the next POST, we will continue to the next part of the guide... so till then, Stay Tuned
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2nd June 2017, 06:47 PM |#3  
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Okay so now, let me tell you how to make your ROM, a lot more interesting and enjoyable to use. Now, the next main purpose of building a custom ROM is to add what is not there in the STOCK ROM, and that is MODS. You can add huge loads of MODS, which are already present in STOCK ROM but are disabled by Samsung. Many mods, for example, adding DATA USAGE in Notification Panel or disabling SMS TO MMS CONVERSION are as simple as adding a single line in a file, however, other MODS, like enabling VIRTUAL LOCK BUTTON in Status Bar requires few and very easy modding after decompiling apks, on the other hand, coloring stuffs in the SystemUI, requires some good modding skills and experience in decompiling stuffs.

Now, in this section, we will be discussing on adding basic mods, that is single line MODS, that I talked about earlier. So, first lets go through the easy stuffs, that is adding mods to build.prop.


Adding MODS to build.prop is actually very easy, and kitchen does all the stuffs. So follow the steps below and you will be good to go

Step1:- Launch "ASSAYYED KITCHEN" and search for "ADDING BUILD.PROP TWEAKS" and select it.
Step 2:- On asking for confirmation, just select "YES".
Step 3:-Now, wait for a short time and once done Press ENTER, and now your ROM is much more smooth and fast. You can head to your build.prop (its in WORK/system) and look for those mods.

Now these are some amazing mods, you can play with some values (but be sure of what you are doing)

So, you've learnt on adding build.prop mods to your ROM. However, we are not limited to this, there are many other MODS to help you enable several things. Go ahead and read on XDA, and you will be surprised to know how many things, you can get by just changing some values or adding some lines in build.prop. Not only from XDA, but from other ROMS (but give appropriate credits to respect the efforts of the developer, who found it)

Now comes the tough (well not tough but overwhelming) part of this guide, that is adding CSC Mods.


The Customer Service Code (CSC) plays an important role in the operation of your Samsung mobile device. The CSC code ensures that your mobile device complies with the standards for your country, and your cell phone operator. Therefore, if we can change/add a few lines in our CSC code, we can actually get features which Samsung disables due to the standards for your country. Hope you get it. Now the main task is to find those lines, through which we can enable these features.

So, we first locate , where to add/modify these lines. Now, navigate to your "WORK/system/csc". Here you will see many files and folders(maybe). Now, it is in this folder, that we make changes and mainly in the "others.xml" file. Now, open this file WITH NOTEPAD++ and you should see a lot of lines of codes which includes some value between <CscFeature...> </CscFeature...> or something like this.


So by now, you know that what is CSC, and where to we add CSC Mods. Now lets learn how to add these MODS.
Well, remember a main rule here and that is COPY AND PASTE. We basically copy a few lines from some other country's others.xml (for your particular device) to your own others.xml.

Well, you can also copy these lines from some other Developer's work, but it is "MANDATORY" to give appropriate credits to the respective developer.

Here, I am listing some (not all xD) of the CSC MODS/lines that I used in my ROM:-

Here, I have mentioned a few of many CSC Mods available for your devices. It is important to note that the above given codes are just to give you an idea. However, it is not necessary that all of the above codes will work with all of the Samsung Devices out there. If your device supports it then it will enable these MODS and if it does not then there will be no effect on the ROM. This is the beauty of CSC Mods, that if they are not compatible with your device, it will not affect your ROM/device in anyway. So, keep on adding MODS by reading, learning, copying and then pasting xD from other places.

Now after this, in the next section, we will discuss about updater-script and its syntax which will help you add various zip files directly to your ROM, so stay tuned for next upcoming posts, as they will be one of the most interesting parts of this guide

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2nd June 2017, 06:48 PM |#4  
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Now comes the most interesting part of making ROMS (at least, according to me), and that is updater-script. Now, I would like you to navigate to "WORK/META-INF/com/google/android" and there you should see two files, namely, "updater-script" and "update-binary". Now, I will explain you first, What is updater-script, what is its essence and how is it so beneficial and interesting in ROM Development.


So, first of all, what the heck is this updater-script. It is basically the file, which instructs TWRP (or any other recovery) what to do with the zip (your ROM or any other flashable zip). Without this, you cant flash anything on your device (well, this is a lie). But, in flashing ROM, this is very important. So, now lets learn about the updater-script syntax

Well, before this, I need to tell you something and that is, how a recovery actually flashes a zip file (This is what I assumed). So basically, when we flash a file, the recovery looks for update-binary inside "META-INF/com/google/android" in the zip file. This update-binary, then tells the recovery, whether the zip has to be installed with a STANDALONE INSTALLER or AROMA INSTALLER. If the recovery founds out that the zip has to be installed by a standalone installer, it then goes to the updater-script, which HAS to be in the same directory as update-binary and says, Hey dude, can you tell me, what I have to do with this zip file.

Hence, the updater-script basically instructs the recovery about what to do with the zip. So, having know about updater-script and its essence, lets now discuss about the syntax or the language in which we can write the updater-script.



So, for this, first open the updater-script with Notepad++, and you will be astonished to see a huge loads of lines. You would be like, what the heck does this mean. I am gonna explain you most (if not all) of the stuffs here.

1) ui_print("");

So, we first begin with ui_print. So, what this does is that, anything you put inside the double quotes (" "), it will print it out directly into the installer screen. (For my programming dudes if you learned about C or C++, it is like cout<<" ")
Now, lets me explain this better with an example, here is a piece of code and its output

ui_print("Hello, I am learning about ROM Building/Modification");
And its output in the recovery:
Hello, I am learning about ROM Building/Modification
Hope you got the idea, now let's go to next one.

2) run_program("/sbin/busybox","mount","/system");

This is basically a modified command. The original command (run_program()) is used to run many in-built programs available in Recovery. You will explore many versions of this command as you head forward in ROM Development. Now, what this specific command does is that, it mounts the "system" partition of the device.
Now, a few of you may ask, why do we require mounting. Basically, without mounting a particular partition, we cannot modify (Add files or remove them) the partition altogether. So, I hope that now you understand, why mounting is so important.

In ROM building, we usually need to mount system, data, cache, and dalvik. So, you will always see the following set of code in the beginning of any updater-script of a ROM.

3) delete("/file_path");

As the name suggests, it deletes a file located on your device. You need to specify the exact file directory in double quotes inside the parenthesis.
For example:-

The above line (when running in a recovery) will delete the SystemUI.apk
4) delete_recursive("/directory);

As the name suggests, this command deletes a directory or even format a partition. It differs from the delete(); command in its working. delete_recursive() deletes a directory while delete() command deletes a file. (Too many deletes in a line)
For example:-

Note that in the above command, the Recovery will delete the SystemUI folder as well its contents.
Another use of this command is in formatting the partitions. As you know, flashing a ROM basically means, we need to extract the contents of the system folder in your zip file to the system partition of your device. So, whenever we flash a new ROM, it is always advised to wipe cache, dalvik and system.

The above code will firmat the necessary partitions
4) package_extract_dir("zip_directory","/directory_on_phone");

This is a very simple and an important command. What it, essentially does is that, it extracts a folder in your zip file to another folder on your device. Let me explain you, with an example:-

{Notice in the / sign in the second parameter, and this is absent in the first parameter}
What the above command essentially does is that it extracts the system folder in your ROM zip to the system directory of your device.
Let's understand this with a few more examples:-

The above command will extract the app folder in the system inside your ROM zip to the app folder in the system directory of your device.
Do it urself
Do it urself

5) symlink("file_name1", "file_name2");

This is a piece of code, which you will never be needing! But I am explaining this here, because, a big amount of updater-script. So, we won't go, into much detail of this command, just an overview. Now, this command basically creates a symbolic link between two files. A symbolic link is where a file has one main name, but there is one extra entry in the filename table that refers any accesses back to the main name.

symlink("/system/lib/", "/system/priv-app/SelectiveFocusViewer/lib/arm/");
This command created a symbolic link between "/system/lib/" and "/system/priv-app/SelectiveFocusViewer/lib/arm/"

6) set_perm(uid, gid, permissions, "file_name_with_adress");

This is quite a useful command, as it helps giving necessary permissions to various files in android. Now, basically, permissions are required for a particular file, which might require some special privilege, in order for it to complete an action. For example, Android cannot allow any file on the system to format the device, formatting can only take place if a file has necessary permissions from Android itself. So, I hope, you got the point why are permissions so important in Android.

Now let's understand the syntax of the above command, which will help give permissions to various Android Files

set_perm(uid, gid, permissions, "file_name_with_adress");
Now, this statement itself has many parameters as you can see. Now, I will limit myself to only explain you the things, which is necessary for ROM development. Now the "UID" and "GID" are UserID and GroupID. (They are a little tough to explain and beyond the domain of this guide, so I will just give a brief description). They are essentially an important part of Android Permissions, and they are usually integers. Don't worry, we will look in the following example about how this works.

Secondly, permissions are like rw-r-r or rwx-rw-rw. Now, if you have been using Linux for a while, you know what these means. Lets understand this, by taking rwx-rw-rw as an example:-
Now the first section, i.e., "rwx" is the permission set given to the "Owner" of the file, the second section i.e., "rw" is the permission set given to the "Group", and the third section, "rw" is the permission given to "Global". They might seem a bit overwhelming, but bear with me, these have very little role, as far as, ROM development goes.

Now coming back to the command, the permission, there is used in an Integer form. Now, I am putting out a link here, if you want to know, how these permissions are converted to integers... (
Essentially, you will only need two permissions, 0644 and 0755. Out of these, 0644 will always be given to an apk, while 0755 will always be given to a folder. (0644 -> rw-r-r and 0755 -> rwx-rx-rx)

set_perm(0, 0, 0777, "/tmp/");
Now, the above command essentially gives the permission "rwx-rwx-rwx" to the file "/tmp/".

7) set_perm_recursive(UID, GID, perm_directory, perm_files, "directory_name");

Now, this is very similar to set_perm(), but the only difference is that this gives permission to an entire directory and its contents. Let's look at an example...

set_perm_recursive(1000, 1000, 0775, 0644, "/system/framework");
This command gives "/system/framework" directory 0775 permissions and all its contents, 0644 permissions. (0775 -> rwx-rwx-rx).

So guys, in this post, I have tried to cover most of the essential Edify Scripting command, you will ever need in your ROM Development journey. I will be talking about a few more commands after we talk about aroma-config in the next post. I am posting out a link, which will help you find more such commands:-

Now, we are done with Updater Script commands (Part 1). In the upcoming post, we will talk about Aroma-Config and after that, we will look at Updater Script Commands (Part 2). So stay tuned and see you guys in the next post.

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Great aman!!! It looks very nice!! Tonight ill be reading it!!!
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congratulations....great thread...keep it high
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You don't have to thanks to me bro, I'm really happy to see you over here, teaching to the rest
Congratulations bro, a lot, you will be great
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Great thread man !!
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