is the Adapter only that plays the Role of giving charge to the phone or does the Micro USB cable also play a big role in charging the phone?
Only if it is really poor quality - unable to send a stable current at the right voltage. Believe it or not but those cables are unnecessarily thick.
I've been using my old S2's charger with the S4 and S5 without issue until I switched to the S-View wireless case. And that is very thin and long.
The most important part though is the charger itself: it needs to supply a stable current and voltage that doesn't exceed or drop below what the S5 wants to be supplied in fast charging.
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