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HD 10 (2017): Offline rooting

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By retyre, Senior Member on 14th January 2018, 07:04 AM
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Update: While this still works, there's an easier method here. Please try that first.

Disclaimer #1: KingoRoot, dr.fone, and most other one-click rooting tools are characterized as malware. Should you use these tools? That decision is yours and yours alone. I do not own any of the tools that follow. All the links are to files that are publicly available.

Disclaimer #2: This is a risky undertaking. If you encounter issues or, worse, end up with a brick, I (or the others here) will try to help you, but the risk is all yours.

Disclaimer #3: This approach is not for everyone. If you lack a half-decent linear combination of (1) troubleshooting skills, (2) patience, (3) reading-comprehension skills, and (4) some love of risk, please stop here.

Disclaimer #4: I have only tried this on the 2017 HD 10. If you try this on another device type and it works, please post in the appropriate forum. If you try this on another device type and it does not work, don't be shocked.

NAQ (Never-Asked Questions):
a. What is "offline" rooting?
-- Rooting your device without needing access to the Internet (i.e., the rooting process requires no Internet connection; not on the phone/tablet, not on the computer).
b . Aren't there a gazillion rooting threads for the 2017 HD 10, each claiming to be easier than its predecessors? Why even bother with this fancy "offline" stuff?
-- All of those rooting threads use tools that require Internet access on the PC. What if those tools stop working because of server issues on their end?
-- More importantly, it's well known that these one-click rooting tools extract and transmit a ton of device-identifying information (e.g., IMEI, Serial Number, ...) that is not central to the rooting process. Why give that up?

For a few weeks now, I have been trying to come up with a rooting process that does not require any Internet access on the computer (we know KingoRoot and dr.fone need Internet access on the computer). I have finally figured out how. As a result, we should be able to root the 2017 HD 10 even if these rooting options cease to exist (assuming Amz updates are blocked at 5.6.0.1).

While Kingo does a good job of hiding its root exploits (i.e., the scripts it fetches from the cloud), the good doctor is a bit more generous (its files are downloaded onto a folder on the disk). I copied everything from that folder after a successful root attempt on my test tablet and examined each file. I was able to tinker with the scripts and binaries after moving them to /data/local/tmp on my tablet, but wasn't able to achieve anything meaningful ... until tonight. Noting the presence of some weirdly-named files in that folder, I did a simple Google search and came up with this hit. Of particular interest is method 2 (ELF). Based on that reading and armed with the files from the folder on the disk, I was able to achieve root without Internet access on my computer. I have done so multiple times, w/ and w/o a fresh sideload of the 5.6.0.0 update .bin. The process succeeds more often than it fails (when it does fail, a reboot and retry usually works), not unlike failures with Kingo or the doctor. It's the same exploit after all.

I am guessing Kingo uses a similar process, but does enough to make its scripts difficult to obtain offline. Access to the doctor's scripts and some clarity on the rooting procedure should help others on this forum make even greater progress.

Update: See my post #10 in this thread for Kingo-related instructions. To do this with Kingo, you would complete steps 4 and 5 in this OP and then move to the steps in post #10.

You will need to download a few files (for which you will, of course, need Internet on your computer):
1. Download the exploits here (it's clear that the exploit that's working for the 2017 HD 10 is Dirty COW: CVE-2016-5195): 20165195.zip and SuperSU_18+.zip and extract to their respective folders.
2. Copy all the files from the SuperSU_18+ folder into the 20165195 folder (overwriting wsroot.sh). Rename 20165195 to something simpler, say c. Inside the c folder, you should have the following binaries and scripts: ddexe, debuggerd, fileWork, install-recovery.sh, Matrix, pidof, start_wssud.sh, su, su_arm64, Superuser.apk, supolicy, toolbox, and wsroot.sh. You can delete Superuser.apk (we will be downloading SuperSU next).
3. Download the SuperSU 2.82 SR5 apk from here (or search for another source). Move it to the c folder.
4. Install the Fire's drivers and ADB+fastboot from here (if you haven't already done so).
You will not need Internet access from this point forward.
You should now have the c folder with 12 files and the SuperSU apk handy. If you lose root for whatever reason (or if you just want to test this out), you do not need KingoRoot or dr.fone. Follow these steps:
5. Do the basics:
-- Fire up your Fire.
-- On your first boot, start the process by clicking on Continue, then click on any of the WiFi choices, click Cancel, choose Not Now, and then Skip. Once the Fire gets to the home screen, pull down the notification bar and enable airplane mode.
-- Become a developer by tapping Serial Number (in Device Options) 7 times, go to Developer Options, and Enable ADB.
-- Go to Security in Settings and enable Apps from Unknown Sources.
-- Connect your Fire to the computer, Allow USB debugging on the tablet, check the popup box to Always allow from this computer (if this does not happen here, it will when you start adb next).
-- Type adb shell in an administrative command prompt. You should enter the tablet as a user.
6. On your computer, copy all the files from the c folder to the Fire's internal storage (/sdcard). Next, go to the command prompt with adb shell and copy the files to /data/local/tmp:
Code:
cp /sdcard/c/* /data/local/tmp
cd /data/local/tmp
ls -l
7. Change permissions:
Code:
chmod 755 *
8. This is the ballgame: Run:
Code:
./Matrix /data/local/tmp 2
This tells Matrix to look for files in /data/local/tmp, with "2" installing su in /system/xbin ("1" installs su8 in /system/xbin). Wait for the process to complete (it will take a minute or two). If it's successful, you will see something like the following as it completes:
Code:
[*] exploited 0x7f83021000=f97cff8c
end!!!!!!!
<WSRoot><Exploit>0</Exploit></WSRoot>
<WSRoot><Done>0</Done></WSRoot>
If it does not report success as depicted above (note that the memory address exploited might be different, but the end result has to be a "0" and "Done"), delete everything from /data/local/tmp/, (hard) reboot the tablet, and retry (starting from step 5). Failure is likely if an exploit check takes greater than 30 seconds, in which case the device may have to be manually rebooted.
This is a sample of the entire output that should be generated:
Code:
[email protected]:/data/local/tmp $ ./Matrix /data/local/tmp 2
<WSRoot><Command>0</Command></WSRoot>
<WSRoot><InitResource>0</InitResource></WSRoot>
Decrypt Success: /data/local/tmp/fileWork
Output File Name: /data/local/tmp/fileWork.
<WSRoot><Decrypt>0</Decrypt></WSRoot>
 extracting: /data/local/tmp/Bridge_wsroot.sh
 extracting: /data/local/tmp/krdirtyCow32
 extracting: /data/local/tmp/krdirtyCow64
 extracting: /data/local/tmp/libsupol.so
 extracting: /data/local/tmp/my.sh
 extracting: /data/local/tmp/mysupolicy
 extracting: /data/local/tmp/patch_script.sh
 extracting: /data/local/tmp/root3
<WSRoot><Decompression>0</Decompression></WSRoot>
execute string: /data/local/tmp/root3 /data/local/tmp/ 2
WARNING: linker: /data/local/tmp/root3: unused DT entry: type 0x6ffffffe arg 0x600
WARNING: linker: /data/local/tmp/root3: unused DT entry: type 0x6fffffff arg 0x1
ro.build.version.sdk :22
ro.product.cpu.abi :arm64-v8a
is x64
execute string: /data/local/tmp/krdirtyCow64 /data/local/tmp/ 2
WARNING: linker: /data/local/tmp/krdirtyCow64: unused DT entry: type 0x6ffffffe arg 0xd30
WARNING: linker: /data/local/tmp/krdirtyCow64: unused DT entry: type 0x6fffffff arg 0x1
path : /data/local/tmp/
path : /data/local/tmp[*] path_script:/data/local/tmp/patch_script.sh /data/local/tmp
rm: /data/local/tmp/sepolicy: No such file or directory
rm: /data/local/tmp/load: No such file or directory
supolicy v2.76 (ndk:armeabi) - Copyright (C) 2014-2016 - Chainfire

Patching policy [/data/local/tmp/sepolicy] --> [/data/local/tmp/load] ...
-permissive:zygote=ok
-permissive:kernel=ok
-permissive:init=ok
-permissive:su=ok
-permissive:init_shell=ok
-permissive:shell=ok
-permissive:servicemanager=ok
- Success

find_opcode offset:2d0 opcode:aaffbbee
find ok star:7f8325c008 end:7f8325c2d8 size:2d0
sh  : /data/local/tmp/my.sh /data/local/tmp 2 fwrite is count 210148 /data/local/tmp/load1
fwrite is count 54204 /data/local/tmp/load2
find_opcode offset:2b4 opcode:eaeaeaea
find_opcode offset:2b8 opcode:ebebebeb
find_opcode offset:22d opcode:abababab
 load = 408a0 load1 = 334e4 load2 = d3bc
find_opcode offset:2b0 opcode:efefefef
find_opcode offset:24d opcode:cdcdcdcd
find_opcode offset:2bc opcode:acacacac
init_shellcode
loadsize:264352
loadpath:/data/local/tmp/load
shpath:/data/local/tmp/my.sh /data/local/tmp 2
shpath:2bc

open /proc
PID:208
find logd pid : d0
_inject_start_s:0x7f8325c008
Copying /sepolicy to /data/local/tmp/cp_sepolicy
cow_exploit_mv_file_init: Overriding /sepolicy from /data/local/tmp/load1
size: 210148
[*] mmap 0x7f83055000;[*] exploit (patch)[*] currently 0x7f83055000=8f97cff8c
sched_setaffinity: Function not implemented[*] madvise = 0x7f83055000 210148
checking the patch ... exploit
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
check done
sched_setaffinity: Function not implementedmadviseThread() done
procselfmemThread() done[*] exploited 0x7f83055000=f97cff8c
 [main]p_vdso_addr:0x7f8325a000  p_vdso_buffer:0x400000[*]set_ret_jmp[*]set_ret_jmp  400410[*]set_ret_jmp  400420

 [main] write 1
Parent is over..status == 0
socket: No such file or directory
socket = 7
ret = ffffffff
connect
: No such file or directory
ret = ffffffff
 find coe f
 [main] write 2
Parent is over..status == 0
cow_exploit_mv_file_init: Overriding /sepolicy from /data/local/tmp/load2
warning: new file size (54204) and file old size (210148) differ
size: 54204
[*] mmap 0x7f83236000;[*] exploit (patch)[*] currently 0x7f83236000=8f97cff8c
sched_setaffinity: Function not implemented[*] madvise = 0x7f83236000 54204
checking the patch ... exploit
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
check done
sched_setaffinity: Function not implementedmadviseThread() done
procselfmemThread() done[*] exploited 0x7f83236000=8600a5
 find coe 36
Parent is over..status == 0
cow_exploit_mv_file_init: Overriding /sepolicy from /data/local/tmp/cp_sepolicy
size: 210148
[*] mmap 0x7f83021000;[*] exploit (patch)[*] currently 0x7f83021000=10007008600a5
checking the patch ... exploit
sleep 1s
sched_setaffinity: Function not implementedsched_setaffinity: Function not implemented[*] madvise = 0x7f83021000 210148
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
sleep 1s
check done
madviseThread() done
procselfmemThread() done[*] exploited 0x7f83021000=f97cff8c
end!!!!!!!
<WSRoot><Exploit>0</Exploit></WSRoot>
<WSRoot><Done>0</Done></WSRoot>

9. Confirm by getting to a root shell:
Code:
su
10. Install SuperSU from /sdcard/c/ (you can just click on Docs on your home screen, go to local storage, then the c directory, and install the apk).
11. Open SuperSU and update binary as Normal (should be successful).
12. Click to reboot.
13. Set SuperSU to Grant as default access.
14. Delete the two wondershare directories in /data/data-lib/:
Code:
cd /data/data-lib
rm -r com.wondershare.DashRoot
rm -r wondershare
15. Not required: Perform other cleanup as needed (look for files in /system/xbin, /system/bin, /data, ... based on install date/time, etc.). Mount /system writable if you're going to be cleaning up items in /system:
Code:
su
mount -w -o remount /system
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14th January 2018, 07:56 AM |#2  
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This is great. A nice framework to add new exploits and fuzz existing ones for previously non rootable devices.

Now we just need meltdown code..


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14th January 2018, 03:56 PM |#3  
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@retyre - Great effort!

I am eagerly awaiting the report of your findings!

I am surprised that Amazon has not started pushing out a new OTA, it's been 4 weeks now since the first rooting report. Xmas must have gotten in the way, or the guy who knew how to patch holes quit

Btw, there is the oldie but goodie - an effort to capture Kingoroot actions, you may try to follow it, if you have a bit of time:
https://forum.xda-developers.com/gen...-imei-t3268525
14th January 2018, 04:12 PM |#4  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bibikalka

... I am eagerly awaiting the report of your findings! ...

As I wrote in the OP, this is confirmed working. That's not what I am worried about here. It's this:
-- Given the widespread characterization of one-click rooting tools (like KingoRoot, dr.fone, etc.) as malware, I am worried it's "bad form" for me to be posting such binaries and scripts on this forum.
-- As shady as KingoRoot and dr.fone are, do they have IP rights (esp. the latter in this case) that I would be violating by posting these files here?

Check your PM.
14th January 2018, 04:32 PM |#5  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by retyre

As I wrote in the OP, this is confirmed working. That's not what I am worried about here. It's this:
-- Given the widespread characterization of one-click rooting tools (like KingoRoot, dr.fone, etc.) as malware, I am worried it's "bad form" for me to be posting such binaries and scripts on this forum.
-- As shady as KingoRoot and dr.fone are, do they have IP rights (esp. the latter in this case) that I would be violating by posting these files here?

Check your PM.

OK, thanks!

My bigger worry is that Amazon will grab these, and plug the holes faster

Btw, if the files have IP issues (or other ones ...), the most that'd happen is that the moderators here would just take it down.
14th January 2018, 05:52 PM |#6  
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The OP has been updated with all the steps and links to the required files. Please read the disclaimers before you begin.
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14th January 2018, 06:15 PM |#7  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by retyre

The OP has been updated with all the steps and links to the required files. Please read the disclaimers before you begin.

Wow, you actually got direct links to dr.fone exploits, straight on their web site!!!

I am amazed that it's DirtyCow, it's been ages, I thought it got patched on Fires way back, in 2016.

Update:
Here is the most "official" link to SuperSu 2.82-SR5 :
https://download.chainfire.eu/1220/S...1001224502.zip

Any reason to use this SuperSu version vs the prior options?
14th January 2018, 08:13 PM |#8  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bibikalka

Wow, you actually got direct links to dr.fone exploits, straight on their web site!!!

I am amazed that it's DirtyCow, it's been ages, I thought it got patched on Fires way back, in 2016.

Update:
Here is the most "official" link to SuperSu 2.82-SR5 :
https://download.chainfire.eu/1220/S...1001224502.zip

Any reason to use this SuperSu version vs the prior options?

Yes. URL snooping is part art, part science.

That's the flashable zip, not the apk. Do you have an official link to the apk? I searched, but couldn't locate one.

I thought we were using 2.79 because of the difficulty in replacing Kingo? That's not an issue here, and it updates successfully (does not report installation failed).
14th January 2018, 08:24 PM |#9  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by retyre

Yes. URL snooping is part art, part science.

That's the flashable zip, not the apk. Do you have an official link to the apk? I searched, but couldn't locate one.

I thought we were using 2.79 because of the difficulty in replacing Kingo? That's not an issue here, and it updates successfully (does not report installation failed).

Yes, correct, 2.79 did not complain about Kingo's su when replacing it. Btw, I was flashing 2.82 via FF, after patching it a bit. To get SuperSu.apk, you just need to unpack zip, and it'll be sitting there, in E:\tmp\SR5-SuperSU-v2.82-SR5-20171001224502\common (or whatever).

Btw, I've edited build.prop a bit, first to remove arm64 in abilong (this would enable the stock SuperSu to work in FF, without patching), and then to disable OTAs via the version number:
http://www.aftvnews.com/how-to-block...ersion-number/

Once I enabled OTA (renaming apk_ back to apk), it promptly downloaded 17 or 18 apks, and updated the Amazon apps. Now, I am on FireOS 5.5., and it did not download 5.6, meaning the version number trick works fine. So it'll freeze the ROM, but will continue updating apps.
16th January 2018, 02:59 AM |#10  
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"Offline" rooting with Kingo
This method is not as offline as the method in the OP, but here's how you can perform a variant of "offline" rooting with Kingo. I will begin by mentioning that Kingo's files are not easily accessible to the user, so you will have to have these files handy before you begin. Sadly, these files can only be obtained while Kingo is doing online rooting. Most (but not all, from what I have seen thus far) of these files are in your AppData\Local\Kingosoft\Kingo Root\files folder, but with different names.

I figured out the actual file names by matching the file sizes in the \files folder on my PC with the files created by Kingo in /data/local/tmp on the tablet while the online Kingo rooting process is _ongoing_ (ls -al). As I mentioned earlier, not every file in /data/local/tmp is in \files, though (could be in other folders on the PC; I haven't looked yet). Following this post, I also did a hex dump of the traffic over USB, but nearly all of it was Kingo transferring its files to /data/local/tmp..

Why does this have to be done while the rooting is in progress? Because Kingo cleans up the /data/local/tmp directory after the rooting is complete. In other words, you will have to copy the files from /data/local/tmp to /sdcard before the rooting completes. If you can do that, these are the files you will obtain: KingoUser.apk, busybox, ddexe, debuggerd, kingo, kingo_1b90d7d01 (likely a copy of KingoUser.apk), kingorootname, mkdevsh, su, suarm64, supolicy, suv7, install-recovery.sh, and libsupol.so (emphasis added to denote the required files). Some information is here as well.

So, what's the best way to obtain these files at this point? Sadly, by rooting (again) with Kingo. (Since these files are not publicly available, I do not think it's right for me to upload them somewhere.) If you can get a hold of these files and save them off the tablet, your future Kingo rooting can be completely offline ... and _mucho_ simpler than the procedure currently in the OP.

Here's what you would do with the aforementioned files:
-- Do steps 4 and 5 in the OP.
-- Download the SuperSU 2.79 apk from here and copy it to /sdcard.
-- Copy all the files Kingo files to a folder on /sdcard (say, k).
-- Copy everything from /sdcard/k to /data/local/tmp:
Code:
cp /sdcard/k/* /data/local/tmp/
cd /data/local/tmp
ls -l
-- Change permissions to execute:
Code:
chmod 755 *
-- This is the actual rooting command:
Code:
./kingo
This should be done in less than a minute, after which you will be back at the shell prompt.
-- Test root:
Code:
su
-- Mount /system writable to check:
Code:
mount -w -o remount /system
-- Install SuperSU 2.79 to get around the "su binary occupied" issue with later SuperSU versions. You should see installation failed (as usual), but things should be fine after the reboot.
-- Set default access to Grant in SuperSU's settings.

I have tested this multiple times. Works every time. Like I said, much easier than the method currently in the OP, but with the added challenge of obtaining non-public rooting files.

How does Kingo root, you ask? The mkdevsh file in /data/local/tmp (it's not on the computer as far as I can tell) is the only script I could find. At this time, I do not know the exploit being used here; it appears to be significantly more efficient than the doctor's remedy, that's for sure. Anyone interested in reversing the "kingo" binary?
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16th January 2018, 03:22 AM |#11  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by retyre


Why does this have to be done while the rooting is in progress? Because Kingo cleans up the /data/local/tmp directory after the rooting is complete. In other words, you will have to copy the files from /data/local/tmp to /sdcard before the rooting completes. If you can do that, these are the files you will obtain: KingoUser.apk, busybox, ddexe, debuggerd, kingo, kingo_1b90d7d01 (likely a copy of KingoUser.apk), kingorootname, mkdevsh, su, suarm64, supolicy, suv7, install-recovery.sh, libsupol.so. (The apk is not needed.) Some information is here as well.
...
-- This is the actual rooting command (I got this from here):

Code:
./kingo kingo
...

Do you think the 'su' above will end up in /system/xbin/su ? Or are those packed inside kingo executable?

Btw, I've studied dr.fone's exploit, and it's using 'su' by Chainfire, there is a text like this inside it.

I suspect these tools are recycling quite a bit of borrowed code, that's why they carefully clean up after they are done.
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