If the dirty flash worked you're good to go. It's what I would have tried to do first. But sometimes it doesn't work and I wanted to make sure you were backed up if you tried to do a wipe. A wipe wipes the caches as well as data. You can also wipe system, but you don't need to do that except in...
You can flash with Odin without waiting. The waiting is something Samsung locks before you can boot the device, FRP, factory reset protection. There are a number of specific firmware for many countries in Europe. You should be able to find one that works for you. You will have to reinstall twrp...
It runs without any issues. Just make sure you update to the latest bootloader with Odin. Otherwise, a few things like the fingerprint reader won't work.
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The best place to get firmware is sammobile.com. You'll have to register, but it's free. Download speeds are slow. There are different firmware for the region you are in.
Samsung has stated locking you out if you flash unauthorized firmware. I recently had a similar issue while rooting. If you...
In your case flash the full factory image, including the wipe, since you're not real sure what firmware the phone is currently on. In the future you can do the ota if you want or the factory image without the wipe.
To get the fingerprint to work you need to flash the latest bootloader, csh9, with odin. Just flash the bl file and not any others. I haven't checked if you need to latest bootloader for twrp to work, but i don't have any problems using rorymc928 rom with the latest bootloader.
I'm not very familiar with mac's. You need to use the .sh file, which I'm pretty sure you know. But you also need to edit the batch file. Command lines that start with / need to be changed to ./ Or something like that. I don't remember exactly.
I assume your bootloader is unlocked? Have you tried flashing the factory image with fastboot? I'd first try using the flash-all batch file with the -w removed. That way you might be able to save data.
With an unlocked bootloader and custom recovery your device is less secure. It's easier to access your device. But still takes some knowledge to do that.
It's possible to flash a custom rom and then lock the bootloader. But it's not recommended. The reason is that if something happens and you...
If you're rooted you can't take an ota directly. But follow this guide and you can get the ota, apply it, and root again. Pay attention to when you can reboot. https://topjohnwu.github.io/Magisk/tutorials.html
You might need to allow unsigned drivers. Here's one how to, https://www.howtogeek.com/167723/how-to-disable-driver-signature-verification-on-64-bit-windows-8.1-so-that-you-can-install-unsigned-drivers/
Have you tried using odin and stock firmware? I'm not sure on Verizon since they kind of lock down the device. If you do try it make sure you backup anything on your device you want to keep because it may wipe the device during the update.
Just follow ashyx's guide in the roms, kernels, and recovery section. At this point start by flashing the stock firmware with odin and make sure your device will boot to the system. Then follow the guide.
Swipe up doesn't work. You still need to use samsungs key for that, I'm not sure what you call that key. For lastpass, you do need to use the pie bootloader with the rest of the firmware. It shouldn't be a problem for most but i found that out using some custom roms.
The first thing you need to do is install twrp on your device. See ashyx guide in the development threads. Installing it will wipe your device so make sure to backup first. Once that is installed you can flash custom roms.