I found a few threads on this issue searching around. Some of which people said that the cover was required for focusing to work, and some that said it still didn't work after replacment. It appears I am suffering from the latter. Unfortunately, there were no solutions posted for that further problem besides "return it to samsung".
My phone is well out of warranty, and I would rather just try and repair it myself or just sell it off for parts and get a new phone.
Anyway, I was wondering if anyone here had an opinion as to why this issue may be occurring, and if anyone had experience fixing or at least ideas on what may be done to solve this issue. My random theory was that some piece of the broken glass fell into the lens module and has somehow restricted functionality of the lens, thus resulting in the failure to focus. In this case, it seems my best option is to drop $30 for a replacement camera module and perform that replacement. I was looking to see if anyone had any success stories regarding that job, or perhaps a simpler route I may be able to take.
Thanks in advance!