If I've read your message correctly, you are doing everything through the HTC toolkit and not through the Android SDK. Frankly, I don't know how the former works. Especially if the HTC Toolkit isn't detecting your phone, you may want to run over to http://developer.android.com/sdk/
and fetch the SDK for your system and set it up. You don't need the ADT Bundle, just the SDK Tools link at the bottom. This may make it easier for other, more knowledgeable people debug your phone, since they all use the SDK. The weaponry you'll be using is all in the <sdk install location>/tools directory, so get a command prompt window pointed there (by the by, are you using Windows, Mac or Linux?)
If you already have your SDK up, or once you do, you'll want to get familiar with the fastboot command, described in this post: forum.xda-developers.com/showthread.php?t=2277112 . What we want to do is see whether we can flash a new recovery ROM.
As long as you don't attempt to flash over the bootloader, you shouldn't super-brick your phone. Based on the message in your original post, your bootloader may have relocked itself. If your first attempt at installing a new recovery ROM doesn't work, then you'll have to use the procedure you used originally to unlock your bootloader. If you've forgotten how to do that, then these instructions (which assume you're using the SDK) should help: http://wiki.cyanogenmod.org/w/Install_CM_for_m7
You're currently using TWRP, which I've personally found buggy. Until you have a functioning phone again, you may want to use ClockworkMod (CWM) Recovery instead: http://www.clockworkmod.com/rommanager
. It has fewer features, but at least they work properly. If flashing ROMs over fastboot is new to you, there are plenty of guides on the Interwebs to help you. I'll also try to walk you through it if you let me know where you're getting stuck. The critical thing, considering that there are many types of HTC One, is to make sure that you flash the ROM that exactly
matches your phone. If you flash the wrong ROM, you probably
won't break your phone any more than it is, but let's try not to test that theory. If you're not positive which phone you have, say so and we'll help you find out.
Let us know once you have CWM on your phone or where you got stuck. The advantage of using the SDK, too, is that you can copy and paste the output right back to the forum.
I hope I understood everything correctly. Let me know if I haven't.