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Battery Chemistry

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By BillTheCat, Senior Member on 22nd April 2013, 07:34 PM
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We all know that the One (and many other modern cellphones) have a Lithium Ion battery. While these batteries have no traditional 'memory effect' the way NiMH did, it seems that different chemistries for the electrolyte would suggest different strategies for recharging.

For example, after looking at the Wikipedia entry for Lithium batteries, it would seem that we should be mindful about 'topping off' the battery, because charging deteriorates the lifespan, implying that running down the battery might be a more advisable practice than plugging in to fully charge every night.

Wondering if any of you experts out there can comment and discuss, given that we One users no longer have replacable cells.
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22nd April 2013, 10:19 PM |#2  
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Good question, I too would be very interested in hearing from some of the posters that are knowledgeable in this area.

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23rd April 2013, 01:58 AM |#3  
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This is pretty well established knowledge right now. I'll list everything pertinent about lithium ion batteries and charging smartphones:

Edit: Note that I mention Lithium Ion in this post, but the HTC One uses Lithium Polymer. They are for all intents and purposes equal in terms of their usability, except for slightly less charge cycles

Edit 2: Hello Reddit! No idea this would have taken off. I'm "coolmatty" on reddit. This is an overall generalization, and there are plenty of resources that go into more detail. Places like Battery University are great sites to start.

1. Charging is what reduces the life of a lithium ion battery. Batteries are usually rated between 700-1000 charge cycles while keeping 90% of their capacity.
2. Charging 0-100% counts as one cycle. Charging 80-100% 5 times counts as one cycle.
3. Leaving your phone on the charger after it is charged has the potential to reduce battery life, although this is less of a problem with newer devices as they often disconnect the charging circuit until the battery drops below ~95%. Generally only an issue if you leave it on the charger for 24+ hours.
4. Lithium ion batteries do not require any conditioning.
5. Most lithium ion devices arrive with ~40-50% battery life remaining, because this is the optimal charge level to store a lithium battery for long periods (such as sitting on a store shelf for months).
6. Slower charging maintains the battery's overall lifetime capacity better than fast charging. This is likely why the HTC One does not have Qualcomm's Quick Charge enabled. It's debateable whether you'd notice the effects over the typical lifetime of a smartphone, however (2 years).
7. Not exactly related to lithium but just in general: smartphones (and tablets, etc) have charging circuits that only draw a certain amount of amps regardless of the number of amps the charger provides. Using a 3.1 amp (tablet-level) charger is not going to significantly increase the speed at which your phone charges. Most phones only use between 0.8 - 1.2 amps. Anything over that is overkill.
8. Storing a lithium ion battery at 0% is really bad for its lifetime capacity. Running it to 0% generally isn't recommended all the time, but a few instances won't hurt it.
9. Recharging from 0-100 doesn't make your battery run longer. It can, however, reset Android's battery level stats so that it can more accurately state the battery level.
10. Charging from ~95% to 100% takes a long time because it must do a trickle charge. Maxing out the battery like this can reduce overall lifetime capacity, but generally not enough to matter. You'll see this impact more often in larger applications of lithium batteries (like cars).
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23rd April 2013, 06:34 AM |#4  
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23rd April 2013, 09:12 AM |#5  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Vincent Law

2. Charging 0-100% counts as one cycle. Charging 80-100% 5 times counts as one cycle.

It does not seem to be that uniform, according to this:

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/a...ased_batteries

From what I understood from the link above in Table 2, you can get the best longevity by charging from 50% (2nd row).
23rd April 2013, 09:32 AM |#6  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jasahu

It does not seem to be that uniform, according to this:

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/a...ased_batteries

From what I understood from the link above in Table 2, you can get the best longevity by charging from 50% (2nd row).


But is it practical to charge it at 50% every time?
23rd April 2013, 09:38 AM |#7  
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Doesn't the one infact have a Li-Po battery ? Would these points still apply ?
23rd April 2013, 09:40 AM |#8  
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Nyxagamemnon

But is it practical to charge it at 50% every time?

What is a practical approach for me now, after reading this all, is to charge it every night.
This way
- I have better chances for not running out of battery during the day
- either it was at 75% (3rd row) or 50% (2nd row) I still have better longevity than charging from 0% most of the time.
23rd April 2013, 09:41 AM |#9  
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Battery life will not degrade as long as you donot empty its charge for long time and donot use it while on charge... over heat on battery aged the battery...

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23rd April 2013, 09:56 AM |#10  
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Just wanted to add: li-ion and li-po batteries now-a-days have protection circuitry to prevent overcharge and over-discharge. Overcharge protection based on what is stated above, known as trickle charge. Over-discharge protection means that your phone will shut off when your battery is around 3v per cell, whereas you should refrain from force starting the phone. The only benefit you get from fully charging/discharging is battery calibration for cell mismatches. It is also good to know that partial charges are better than full charges when it comes to lithium ion (and lithium polymer) batteries.
23rd April 2013, 11:59 AM |#11  
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The HTC one uses li-poly, not li-ion

Can read all about the advantages and disadvantages of each other here:

http://batteryuniversity.com/learn/a..._ideal_battery

li-poly

Quote:

Advantages

Very low profile - batteries resembling the profile of a credit card are feasible.
Flexible form factor - manufacturers are not bound by standard cell formats. With high volume, any reasonable size can be produced economically.
Lightweight - gelled electrolytes enable simplified packaging by eliminating the metal shell.
Improved safety - more resistant to overcharge; less chance for electrolyte leakage.

Limitations

Lower energy density and decreased cycle count compared to lithium-ion.
Expensive to manufacture.
No standard sizes. Most cells are produced for high volume consumer markets.
Higher cost-to-energy ratio than lithium-ion

As far as I am concerned, li-poly is overall better for phones where you can't change the battery.

by the looks of that article it was done quite a while ago (for the tech. world) so the disadvantages might not be as much of a problem these days.....
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