I have tried numerous fixes:
Reinstalling the applications
Seeing if .NET Compact Framework was installed; the phone claimed it was, but I couldn't find any trace of it and so I tried to reinstall it. I was not able to, so I "uninstalled" it from the phone, which still thought it had it; the operation took no time, so I doubt it was there in the first place. When I tried installing it to the phone again, it said that this version was already in the ROM. Also tried installing an older version of the CF, but it just said I had a newer version.
Switching memory cards (3 different ones)
Renaming the memory card and restarting, a fix recommended to some other people who had a problem with similar symptoms. It refused to cooperate and said that the memory card could not be renamed.
My next step will be to rename the memory card using a device other than the phone itself.
I don't want to hard reset as I wish to keep my messages and contacts, but if that's what is needed to "un-half-brick" this phone, I will of course do it. The way it acts now, I might as well have kept my n95.
It is worth noting that HardSPL should be installed, as it was required for the Radio ROM flash.
EDIT: HardSPL install IS verified, boot screen reads as follows:
In this thread, Gargoyle999 is describing my exact problem: forum.ppcgeeks.com/showthread.php?p=1882858
Keep in mind that this phone is Norwegian with Telenor as its carrier, although the phone itself is not locked and capable of using any carrier.
EDIT: The files that may not be run are mostly third-party ones, like MorphGear, zharet, Google Maps and so on. Most programs that came with the phone, like Copilot, Footprints and Opera work.
I am not too familiar with XDA, so forgive me if I am posting in the wrong section or making some other rookie mistake xD