[13.06.22] N986B I N985F/DS I Dr.Ketan ROM I OneUI 4.1 I OneUI 3.1

Search This thread

dr.ketan

Recognized Developer / Recognized Contributor
It says 18hrs but in reality it's draining really
You even don't know how to calculate clean SOT
You have multiple times charged device, which won't give you any idea.
Full charge phone and then discharge upto 10% and see how is stat. If you find draining then search for better bettery tat app on XDA and learn how to find culprit and handle it accordingly.
 

Timtown

Senior Member
Feb 27, 2007
643
319
Wake Forest, NC
Thanks for trust & love for rom
Yes, flash stock & lock bl is enough.
By the way I have already pre-booked S22.
I'm seeing some reporting saying Exynos variants are having issues. Meanwhile, the Snapdragon is apparently running like a scalded cat. So, what's the story on your device?

I'm leaning towards the S22U but I, seriously, can't even consider using a phone that's not rooted and running a custom ROM. Are you considering supporting the device? Welcome a PM from you if you'd prefer not to clutter this thread.
 

dr.ketan

Recognized Developer / Recognized Contributor
I'm seeing some reporting saying Exynos variants are having issues. Meanwhile, the Snapdragon is apparently running like a scalded cat. So, what's the story on your device?

I'm leaning towards the S22U but I, seriously, can't even consider using a phone that's not rooted and running a custom ROM. Are you considering supporting the device? Welcome a PM from you if you'd prefer not to clutter this thread.
No issue yet I have found on S22U Snapdragon. Though my primary device is still N20U so have use it limited.


You are late to the party!
 
Just a guy looking for help here, Ive read some previous comments in this thread regarding good battery life however I can't seem to get good battery life myself. Anyone be able to help pin point my battery drain? It says 18hrs but in reality it's draining really View attachment 5561563
Hi

Same at mine, and some other people, and we do all settings for good battery life, but more than 17hours whith 30min screen on is maximum, at a friends phone same rom apps and settings it's over 2d standby, maybe some device are bad production, other is it not to understand
 

Sprokyshark

Senior Member
Mar 2, 2014
76
9
hyderabad
I have a 985f ds. it was stock and I let it upgrade to android 12. I then unlocked the boot loader and flashed twrp. It would then boot loop twrp with no menus. I have tied to oden the files here and cant get it out of the boot loop. It either boot looped twrp or the shock screen. Can any one please help me?
I had the same issue. You have to flash the twrp provided in the zip. After this it fixed the boot loop of twrp for me. When it's bootlooping you have to wait and then get it into download mode. Then flash twrp n then the regular steps.
 

jeffreyoosting1985

New member
Mar 18, 2022
3
0
Hello dr.ketan
I use your ROM sins 2017
On all my devices
Sins today i have an Note 20 Ultra N986B
I accidently installed the bootloader for N986F
And now im stock in Download mode
I tried smart switch and tried to install
To official firmware from sammobile with odin
but it seems that im stuck
Can you please help me i dont know what to do

20220318_151431.jpg
 

dr.ketan

Recognized Developer / Recognized Contributor
Hello dr.ketan
I use your ROM sins 2017
On all my devices
Sins today i have an Note 20 Ultra N986B
I accidently installed the bootloader for N986F
And now im stock in Download mode
I tried smart switch and tried to install
To official firmware from sammobile with odin
but it seems that im stuck
Can you please help me i dont know what to dre shouldn't be issue flashing stock rom

There shouldn't be issue flashing stock. Reboot download mode and try again
 

gandotratushar

Senior Member
Dec 12, 2007
265
13
If you are flashing magisk patched then it may cause issue. Flash complete stock rom. Try different cable and PC if issue with stock
Suddenly my imobile app (icici) has stopped working.. I had configured it under denylist and it was working fine till yesterday. Today it stopped with the rooted system error..
 

dr.ketan

Recognized Developer / Recognized Contributor
ChangeLog S05

  • Based on N986BXXU3FVC5 March 2022 security patch OneUI 4.1
  • SafetyNet Fix : Pre-Fixed again, No needs to apply two times. Read setting up instructions below.
  • Fixed Secure Folder not working for some users
  • Essential fix added optio to install 1.SwiftBackup 2.LSPosed
Samsung Base Chanelog
  • One UI 4.1 Update
  • Security Patch Updte

Bugs in TWRP : TWRP have few bugs
  • MTP not working
TweaksPro must updated to version 4.0.1 or up (older version may cause bootloop)

Important Instructions for setting up ROM (NEW)



- In case clean installing ROM
  • On first boot, open magisk and complete the additional setings if asked for, else exit the magisk app. (Don't setup any option in magisk now)
  • Then open ROM Tool, Apply essential fix and Reboot
  • After reboot SfetyNet should pass. You can use this app from playstore or This from Github to check SafetyNet. There is separate SafetyNex Fix option available in ROM Tool - Mods & Misc fix - SafetyNet fix, You can use anytime if needed.
  • Now you can further setup ROM a per your liking. Also MagikHide is Configure Denylist now and available under Magisk Settings.
  • Since A12 Stable Magisk not working and new Magisk doesn't have buil-in Module repo, You can get standalone module manager from here For more details and queries about new magisk ref this
- In case dirty install (You can try if you are on DrKetan ROM previous version but we DO NOT RECOMMENDED)
  • Clear ROM Tool data
  • Before installing ROM, uninstall Magisk manager from app drawer
  • After ROM installation, update Magisk from installed stub
  • Then Follow above instruction for clean installation
  • In case you have any issue after dirty install, don't post queries on thread, we don't support dirty install, simply go with clean install.
PS : Plz don't install any other mods for SafetyNet, All queries related to Magisk/SafetyNet will be ignored if already explained above

IMPORTANT NOTES :
  • We recommended to flash Stock firmware before flashing this ROM if you are on too old base or on other ROM , If not full, at least flash Home_CSC*.tar.md5 file from stock firmware with CSC tab of Odin. This is specifically for
    • N985 Device (Any group of CSC)
    • N986B device with non OXM group of CSC (To check your CSC group, Dial *#1234#. If CSC part doesn't starts with N986BOXM your are on Non OXM group of CSC
  • For N986B device with OXM group CSC (If your CSC part starts with N986BOXM) files are included (about 98 CSCs) in ROM setup file, You can see complete list of available CSC in aroma installer. You must select to flash CSC option if your csc is part of it. This will update CSC files to same base.
  • New base have updated bootloader so if you are running previous base, you must needs to update Bootloader & Modem else device won't boot. BL and Modem available in download area (separate for N986B and N985F each) with separate instructions packed inside.
  • Clean Install is recommended always.
  • Don't Install any module related to SafetyNet Fix/Busybox/Multidisabler etc, Everything is included in ROM itself.


ROM Features

- Ad Free QS Panel Toggle
- Secure Folder
- SafetyNet Pre-fixed
- Reboot to recovery QS Panel Toggle
- Native call recorder (Manual) While you are on call - click 3 dot - Record (Should work without CSC restriction)
- Auto Call Record (See below ROM Tool)
- Removed many stubs & common bloatwares (tried to preserve most functions though)
- Removed carrier bloatwares
- QuickStar without CSC dependency
- More secure OEM patch.
- High Volume warning disabled
- Dual SIM + SD card pre patched
- Pre fixed Titanium freezing while restoring apps
- Probable fix for Titanium Backup schedule
- Internet browser Secret mode
- ROM Tool Essential Fix give option to Install 1.Yasnac SafetyNet checker 2.FoxMM magisk module manager 3.SwiftBackup 4.LSposed
- ROM Tool with following Options

  • Long Press Home customization : Select Device assistance as LP Home from settings, then select if you want to use it to assign to any
  • AdFree mode Enable/Disable
  • Single click install/uninstall custom fonts (on the fly)
  • YouTube Vanced Installer (No xposed requires)
    1. NonRoot - Requires MicroG to login
    2. Root - Truely alternate to Youtube, Can login to youtube without MicroG
  • You have to click on NonRoot/Root depending on your choice, then you needs to click "Install" tab and latest version of Youtube vanced will get installed.
  • StatusBar Icons
    1. Show/Hide stock battery
    2. Show/Hide 3minit battery
    3. show/hide stock clock
    4. show/hide 3minit clock
    5. Show/Hide multiple SB Icons & Clock position (Quick Star) (Needs R update to work)
  • ROM Control - See below
  • GoodLock
  • Mods & Fix
    1. Auto Call Record (No CSC limitations)
    2. Titanium backup FC fix
    3. Google Pay Fix
    4. SafetyNet Fix
    5. Added camera fix (Certain users reported camera failed issue. This is reported on stock too, here is someworkaroung meanwhile samsung fix it)
    6. Option to freeze CID manage (If some CSC have SIM change popup)
    7. Remove red text warning msg from bootsplash.
    8. Install Dolby Atom sound.
    9. S Health & Private share fix
  • Update & Fix
- ROM Control (systemUI preferences)

    • Battery Bar with thickness and color option
    • Network meter with Toggle (Lt/Rt/Quick Panel/None) with color option
    • Virtual Key with Toggle (Lt side - Menu, Rt side - Power, Centre - Home) (PS : Not working on A12)
PS : There may be few more options in ROM control but won't work if those are not mentioned here.


Known Bug/Tips/Fix


  • 3 minit users can use 3minit battery paid version for free. Check this (Thanks to gharrington )
  • Tips on TWRP and App Backup/Restore Read Here


Installation : Refer to Installation note available in ROM download area.

Download : DrKetanROM.com



PS : This is a fully customized ROM and for end users only, ROM or any part of ROM not allowed to redistribute,modify or to use as base to prepare new ROM.


STATUS : Online
 
Last edited:

Top Liked Posts

  • There are no posts matching your filters.
  • 6
    Testing S08 now !


    Screenshot_20220611-011924_Settings.jpg
    4
    ChangeLog S08

    • Based on N986BXXU4FVE7 May 2022 security patch OneUI 4.1
    • Magisk updated to V25.0. Now you must update Magisk from stub OR manually Install just after flashing ROM and boot first time.
    • CSC Files updated for OMC group
    • Included Official TWRP (Credit & Thanks : corsicanu , Original Thread here)
    • SafetyNet Fix : Pre-Fixed again, No needs to apply two times. Read setting up instructions below.
    Samsung Base Chanelog
    • Overall stability of your device has been improved.
    • The security of your device has been improved.
    • Camera
    • The Night portrait feature has been enhanced.


    TweaksPro must updated to version 4.1.0 or up (older version may cause bootloop)

    Important Instructions for setting up ROM (NEW)



    - In case clean installing ROM
    • On first boot, Update Magisk from stub OR Install as a apk and open magisk and complete the additional setings if asked for, else exit the magisk app. (Don't setup any option in magisk now)
    • Then open ROM Tool, Apply essential fix and Reboot
    • After reboot SfetyNet should pass. You can use this app from playstore or This from Github to check SafetyNet. There is separate SafetyNex Fix option available in ROM Tool - Mods & Misc fix - SafetyNet fix, You can use anytime if needed.
    • Now you can further setup ROM a per your liking. Also MagikHide is Configure Denylist now and available under Magisk Settings.
    • Since A12 Stable Magisk not working and new Magisk doesn't have buil-in Module repo, You can get standalone module manager from here For more details and queries about new magisk ref this
    - In case dirty install (You can try if you are on DrKetan ROM previous version but we DO NOT RECOMMENDED)
    • Clear ROM Tool data
    • Before installing ROM, uninstall Magisk manager from app drawer
    • After ROM installation, update Magisk from installed stub
    • Then Follow above instruction for clean installation
    • In case you have any issue after dirty install, don't post queries on thread, we don't support dirty install, simply go with clean install.
    PS : Plz don't install any other mods for SafetyNet, All queries related to Magisk/SafetyNet will be ignored if already explained above

    IMPORTANT NOTES :
    • We recommended to flash Stock firmware before flashing this ROM if you are on too old base or on other ROM , If not full, at least flash Home_CSC*.tar.md5 file from stock firmware with CSC tab of Odin. This is specifically for
      • N985 Device (Any group of CSC)
      • N986B device with non OXM group of CSC (To check your CSC group, Dial *#1234#. If CSC part doesn't starts with N986BOXM your are on Non OXM group of CSC
    • For N986B device with OXM group CSC (If your CSC part starts with N986BOXM) files are included (about 98 CSCs) in ROM setup file, You can see complete list of available CSC in aroma installer. You must select to flash CSC option if your csc is part of it. This will update CSC files to same base.
    • New base have updated bootloader so if you are running previous base, you must needs to update Bootloader & Modem else device won't boot. BL and Modem available in download area (separate for N986B and N985F each) with separate instructions packed inside.
    • Clean Install is recommended always.
    • Don't Install any module related to SafetyNet Fix/Busybox/Multidisabler etc, Everything is included in ROM itself.


    ROM Features

    - Ad Free QS Panel Toggle
    - Secure Folder
    - SafetyNet Pre-fixed
    - Reboot to recovery QS Panel Toggle
    - Native call recorder (Manual) While you are on call - click 3 dot - Record (Should work without CSC restriction)
    - Auto Call Record (See below ROM Tool)
    - Removed many stubs & common bloatwares (tried to preserve most functions though)
    - Removed carrier bloatwares
    - QuickStar without CSC dependency
    - More secure OEM patch.
    - High Volume warning disabled
    - Dual SIM + SD card pre patched
    - Pre fixed Titanium freezing while restoring apps
    - Probable fix for Titanium Backup schedule
    - Internet browser Secret mode
    - ROM Tool Essential Fix give option to Install 1.Yasnac SafetyNet checker 2.FoxMM magisk module manager 3.SwiftBackup 4.LSposed
    - ROM Tool with following Options

    • Long Press Home customization : Select Device assistance as LP Home from settings, then select if you want to use it to assign to any
    • AdFree mode Enable/Disable
    • Single click install/uninstall custom fonts (on the fly)
    • YouTube Vanced Installer (No xposed requires)
      1. NonRoot - Requires MicroG to login
      2. Root - Truely alternate to Youtube, Can login to youtube without MicroG
    • You have to click on NonRoot/Root depending on your choice, then you needs to click "Install" tab and latest version of Youtube vanced will get installed.
    • StatusBar Icons
      1. Show/Hide stock battery
      2. Show/Hide 3minit battery
      3. show/hide stock clock
      4. show/hide 3minit clock
      5. Show/Hide multiple SB Icons & Clock position (Quick Star) (Needs R update to work)
    • ROM Control - See below
    • GoodLock
    • Mods & Fix
      1. Auto Call Record (No CSC limitations)
      2. Titanium backup FC fix
      3. Google Pay Fix
      4. SafetyNet Fix
      5. Added camera fix (Certain users reported camera failed issue. This is reported on stock too, here is someworkaroung meanwhile samsung fix it)
      6. Option to freeze CID manage (If some CSC have SIM change popup)
      7. Remove red text warning msg from bootsplash.
      8. Install Dolby Atom sound.
      9. S Health & Private share fix
    • Update & Fix
    - ROM Control (systemUI preferences)

      • Battery Bar with thickness and color option
      • Network meter with Toggle (Lt/Rt/Quick Panel/None) with color option
      • Virtual Key with Toggle (Lt side - Menu, Rt side - Power, Centre - Home) (PS : Not working on A12)
    PS : There may be few more options in ROM control but won't work if those are not mentioned here.


    Known Bug/Tips/Fix


    • 3 minit users can use 3minit battery paid version for free. Check this (Thanks to gharrington )
    • Tips on TWRP and App Backup/Restore Read Here


    Installation : Refer to Installation note available in ROM download area.

    Download : DrKetanROM.com



    PS : This is a fully customized ROM and for end users only, ROM or any part of ROM not allowed to redistribute,modify or to use as base to prepare new ROM.


    STATUS : Online
    3
    I have downloaded latest base (jun patch) but seems better wait for July patch as it may appear withing wk or two.
    2

    Thank you very much Doc for test build. I have the S08 Rom installed on My N986B , clean flashed . Everything is working perfectly well. I have no bugs to report 👍👍
    2
    N985F users who just want to update Bootloader & Modem, but don't want to spend much time downloading & unpacking & flashing the full ROM (about 8Gb), I did this for you. AP file is trimmed the same was as Dr. Ketan did (except MD5)
    Download from MediaFire

    A comment from Dr. Ketan: "Don't forget that CSC file should be used only for OXM group of CSC users, If it is flashed on Non OXM CSC device then his/her CSC will be messed up."
  • 32
    N986B/N985F Dr.Ketan ROM




    ROM Features

    ROM Features varies with version of ROM. For more details, read changelog post. Link available in post #3 for changelog of all versions.
    Must read changelog for a version you are going to install, it will have latest information about features, changes, known bug list/fix and Installation guide of respective version.

    Credit and Thanks :
    @Chainfire - Respected elite developer for supersu and his unbelievable contribution to XDA/Android community. @wanam - Respected elite developer for his awesome contribution and references to his works.
    @topjohnwu for Magisk
    @xperiacle the amazing developer for reference to his work and tools. @amarullz for aroma installer. @gharrington for 3minit battery and QuickLaunch.
    ROM Control source and all credit and thanks goes to @daxgirl and @Wuby986 for their open source project for RomControl.
    @AbrahamGC for some ideas samsungvn htcmania & 4PDA for tips and some stock apks.
    AbrahamGC and Anan1211 for Secure folder and s-health A12 ianmacd for TWRP @Arteush for bluetooth fix (losing BT pair on reboot) on Android Q, aka_vkl for Dolby digital, kdrag0n for SafetyNet fix @Winb33 for custom font pack





    XDA:DevDB Information

    N986B I Dr.Ketan ROM , ROM for the Samsung Galaxy Note 20 Ultra

    Contributors
    dr.ketan, Dr.Ketan
    ROM OS Version: Android 11
    ROM Kernel: Linux 4.x
    ROM Firmware Required: Stock Samsung

    Version Information
    Status:
    Stable

    Created 2020-08-27
    Last Updated 2020-10-29
    26
    Dear friends
    Sorry for not available on xda since nearly 3 wks because of medical urgency. Now all good but still covid situation in my city is horrible (second wave) and becauses of pending work as well too much hospital workload, it may still take one or two weeks more to full come back on xda.
    Thank you everyone for support and patience.
    Regards
    16
    After some workaround found a way to use TWRP on A12, I am in touch with Ian regarding this for final fix and public release.

    Edit : Made backup of SB1 and worked like a charm, yet restore not tested though.

    Screenshot_2021-11-29-11-59-18.png Screenshot_20211130-032646_Root Explorer.jpg
    15
    ChangeLog

    Android Q
    - Q01 - 27.08.2020 - Initial release
    - Q02 - Only Test release
    - Q03 - 11.09.2020
    - Q04 - 21.09.2020
    - Q05 - 10.10.2020
    - Q06 - 11.10.2020

    Android R(Beta)
    - RB1 - 27.10.2020
    - RB2 - 29.10.2020
    - RB3 - 06.11.2020
    - RB4 - 12.11.2020

    - RB5 - 04.12.2020

    Android R (Stable)
    -
    R01 - 19.12.2020
    - R02 - 06.01.2021

    OneUI 3.1
    -
    R03 - 19.02.2021
    - R04 - 15.03.2021
    - R05 - 27.03.2021
    - R06 - 02.05.2021
    - R07 - 12.06.2021
    - R08 - 10.07.2021
    - R09 - 14.08.2021
    - R10 - 09.09.2021
    - R11 - 17.10.2021
    - R12 - 08.11.2021

    Android S (A12) OneUI 4.0 (Beta)
    - SB1 - 16.11.2021

    Android S (A12) OneUI 4.0 (Stable)
    -
    S01 - 30.12.2021
    - S02 - 18.01.2022
    - S03 - 31.01.2022
    - S04 - 06.02.2022

    Android S (A12) OneUI 4.1
    - S05 - 20.03.2022
    - S06 - 16.04.2022
    - S07 - 17.05.2022
    - S08 - 13.06.2022










    How to report bugs/Issue?
    To report issue, you needs to provide following informations, else it will be ignored. Also if your query is already mentioned on OP/ChangeLogg post, it will be ignored.
    1.ROM build number.
    2.Dirty/Clean Install. - If you have dirty installed, Then first clean install and report if issue persists.
    3.Bug/Issue appears right after installing or later?
    4.How to reproduce error.
    5.Is there any same reports there on thread on your searching?
    6.Is there any mention about same bug on OP or changeLog post?
    7.Logs - Attach logs here/Upload to other places where it can be downloaded without registration and doesn't have ad (we recommend dropbox/Gdrive) and post link.
    15
    ChangeLog R03 (N986B/N985F)

    (Update : There is new version R03_New.
    Basic features remain same as R03. Read This for R03_New change log)
    • Based on N986BXXU1DUB6 Feb2021 security patch OneUI 3.1
    • SafetyNet fix will auto apply with ROM Tool essential fix. Don't use any other safetynet fix
    • Magisk updated to latest stable
    • GoodLock & Quick Star updated
    • AdFree host file updated
    • Vanced manager updated
    • More apps debloated (download area have restore files if needed
    • Custom fonts available in debloating folder of download area
    • All the other features of previous version will remain same.
    • Samsung Base ChangeLog

    Calendar
    - Extract the date and address from the event title and recommend automatic registration.
    - Receive notifications from SmartThings devices that also have specified schedule notifications.
    Camera
    - The performance of Camera has been improved
    Display
    - Eye comfort shield function has been added.
    - The color temperature of the screen automatically adjusts for the time of day.
    Buds Auto Switching
    - Support Buds auto switching between Galaxy phone and tablet.
    Reminder
    - Extract the date and address from the reminder memo and recommend to register automatically, and remind important information by situation.
    Share Sheet
    - It is now possible to protect your privacy by deleting the location information of previously taken photos before sharing or posting them on social media.
    Social Platform
    - Synchronize valid links created on devices with the same registered Samsung account.
    - The use of social media services has been simplified. It is possible to share profiles, photos, notes, schedules, and more with friends simply by logging in to your Samsung account.
    Photo Editor
    - Object eraser feature has been added to Labs in Photo Editor.
    - Using Erase Objects allows you to erase an object which you want in the photo.


    TweaksPro recommended version is 2.0.7 or up

    ROM Features


    - Ad Free QS Panel Toggle
    - Reboot to recovery QS Panel Toggle
    - Native call recorder (Manual) While you are on call - click 3 dot - Record (Should work without CSC restriction)
    - Auto Call Record (See below ROM Tool)
    - Removed many stubs & common bloatwares (tried to preserve most functions though)
    - Removed carrier bloatwares
    - QuickStar without CSC dependency
    - More secure OEM patch.
    - High Volume warning disabled
    - Dual SIM + SD card pre patched
    - Pre fixed Titanium freezing while restoring apps
    - Probable fix for Titanium Backup schedule
    - Internet browser Secret mode
    - S Health patch for using with rooted device.
    - ROM Tool with following Options
      • Long Press Home customization : Select Device assistance as LP Home from settings, then select if you want to use it to assign to any
      • AdFree mode Enable/Disable
      • Single click install/uninstall custom fonts (on the fly)
      • YouTube Vanced Installer (No xposed requires)
        1. NonRoot - Requires MicroG to login
        2. Root - Truely alternate to Youtube, Can login to youtube without MicroG
      • You have to click on NonRoot/Root depending on your choice, then you needs to click "Install" tab and latest version of Youtube vanced will get installed.
      • StatusBar Icons
        1. Show/Hide stock battery
        2. Show/Hide 3minit battery
        3. show/hide stock clock
        4. show/hide 3minit clock
        5. Show/Hide multiple SB Icons & Clock position (Quick Star) (Needs R update to work)
      • ROM Control - See below
      • GoodLock
      • Mods & Fix
        1. Auto Call Record (No CSC limitations)
        2. Titanium backup FC fix
        3. Google Pay Fix
        4. SafetyNet Fix
        5. Added camera fix (Certain users reported camera failed issue. This is reported on stock too, here is someworkaroung meanwhile samsung fix it)
        6. Option to freeze CID manage (If some CSC have SIM change popup)
        7. Remove red text warning msg from bootsplash.
      • Update & Fix
    - ROM Control (systemUI preferences)

      • Battery Bar with thickness and color option
      • Network meter with Toggle (Lt/Rt/Quick Panel/None) with color option
      • Virtual Key with Toggle (Lt side - Menu, Rt side - Power, Centre - Home)
    PS : There may be few more options in ROM control but won't work if those are not mentioned here.


    Known Bug/Tips/Fix

    - Wallapaper setting not available because of debloating accidentally file. Kindly flash
    AR_Zone_Emoji_WallPaper.zip from Download/Bloatware folder
    - 3 minit users can use 3minit battery paid version for free. Check this (Thanks to gharrington )

    Installation
    : Refer to Installation note available in ROM download area.

    Download : DrKetanROM.com



    PS : This is a fully customized ROM and for end users only, ROM or any part of ROM not allowed to redistribute,modify or to use as base to prepare new ROM.






    .