Thanks Ritik17 for the tip, that definitely worked!
To change SELinux from Enforcing to Permissive, here's what I did:
1. Root device. (By changing Magisk.apk to Magisk.zip then flashing through ADB sideload)
2. Install Terminal application from Play Store.
3. Typed "su" then allowed root access through Magisk.
4. Typed "getenforce" to get the SELinux status (in this case it reported "Enforcing")
5. Typed "setenforce 0" then pressed enter to switch SELinux to Permissive.
6. Typed "exit" to exit out of the root interface.
Afterwards, the fingerprint registration worked!
EDIT: The above steps, while allowing for fingerprint registration, basically makes it so that safetynet checks will always fail. Applying the safetynet fix makes it such that the fingerprints get deleted every after reboot.
EDIT 2: I noticed that while the lockscreen recognizes the fingerprints saved, the phone acts as if there are not biometric sensors enabled. My apps can't detect that I have enrolled fingerprints.