[GUIDE] Pixel 5 "redfin": Unlock Bootloader, Update, Root, Pass SafetyNet

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V0latyle

Forum Moderator
Staff member
If you are looking for my guide on a different Pixel, find it here:
Update 4-28-22: While Magisk 24.0 has been updated for use with Android 12, many users are still having problems with patching the out of band OTA, so Canary 24306 is recommended.
Discussion thread for migration to 24.0.

DO NOT use any version of Magisk lower than Canary 23016 as it does not yet incorporate the necessary fixes for Android 12 and your device.


WARNING: YOU AND YOU ALONE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANYTHING THAT HAPPENS TO YOUR DEVICE. THIS GUIDE IS WRITTEN WITH THE EXPRESS ASSUMPTION THAT YOU ARE FAMILIAR WITH ADB, MAGISK, ANDROID, AND ROOT. IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING.

Prerequisites:


Android Source - Setting up a device for development


  1. Follow these instructions to enable Developer Options and USB Debugging.
  2. Enable OEM Unlocking. If this option is grayed out, unlocking the bootloader is not possible.
  3. Connect your device to your PC, and open a command window in your Platform Tools folder.
  4. Ensure ADB sees your device:
    Code:
    adb devices
    If you don't see a device, make sure USB Debugging is enabled, reconnect the USB cable, or try a different USB cable.
    If you see "unauthorized", you need to authorize the connection on your device.
    If you see the device without "unauthorized", you're good to go.
  5. Reboot to bootloader:
    Code:
    adb reboot bootloader
  6. Unlock bootloader: THIS WILL WIPE YOUR DEVICE!
    Code:
    fastboot flashing unlock
    Select Continue on the device screen.

  1. Install Magisk on your device.
  2. Download the factory zip for your build.
  3. Inside the factory zip is the update zip: "device-image-buildnumber.zip". Open this, and extract boot.img
  4. Copy boot.img to your device.
  5. Patch boot.img with Magisk: "Install" > "Select and Patch a File"
  6. Copy the patched image back to your PC. It will be named "magisk_patched-23xxx_xxxxx.img". Rename this to "master root.img" and retain it for future updates.
  7. Reboot your device to bootloader.
  8. Flash the patched image:
    Code:
    fastboot flash boot <drag and drop master root.img here>
  9. Reboot to Android. Open Magisk to confirm root - under Magisk at the top, you should see "Installed: <Magisk build number>

  1. Before you download the OTA, open Magisk, tap Uninstall, then Restore Images. If you have any Magisk modules that modify system, uninstall them now.
  2. Take the OTA update when prompted. To check for updates manually, go to Settings > System > System Update > Check for Update
  3. Allow the update to download and install. DO NOT REBOOT WHEN PROMPTED. Open Magisk, tap Install at the top, then Install to inactive slot. Magisk will then reboot your device.
  4. You should now be updated with root.

  1. Download the OTA.
  2. Reboot to recovery and sideload the OTA:
    Code:
    adb reboot sideload
    Once in recovery:
    Code:
    adb sideload ota.zip
  3. When the OTA completes, you will be in recovery mode. Select "Reboot to system now".
  4. Allow system to boot and wait for the update to complete. You must let the system do this before proceeding.
  5. Reboot to bootloader.
  6. Boot the master root image (See note 1):
    Code:
    fastboot boot <drag and drop master root.img here>
    Note: If you prefer, you can download the factory zip and manually patch the new boot image, then flash it after the update. Do not flash an older boot image after updating.
  7. Your device should boot with root. Open Magisk, tap Install, and select Direct Install.
  8. Reboot your device. You should now be updated with root.
Note: You can use Payload Dumper to extract the contents of the OTA if you want to manually patch the new boot image. However, I will not cover that in this guide.

Please note that the factory update process expects an updated bootloader and radio. If these are not up to date, the update will fail.
  1. Download the factory zip and extract the contents.
  2. Reboot to bootloader.
  3. Compare bootloader versions between phone screen and bootloader.img build number
    Code:
    fastboot flash bootloader <drag and drop new bootloader.img here>
    If bootloader is updated, reboot to bootloader.
  4. Compare baseband versions between phone screen and radio.img build number
    Code:
    fastboot flash radio <drag and drop radio.img here>
    If radio is updated, reboot to bootloader.
  5. Apply update:
    Code:
    fastboot update --skip-reboot image-codename-buildnumber.zip
    When the update completes, the device will be in fastbootd. Reboot to bootloader.
  6. Boot the master root image (See note 1):
    Code:
    fastboot boot <drag and drop master root.img here>
    Note: If you prefer, you can manually patch the new boot image, then flash it after the update. Do not flash an older boot image after updating.
  7. Your device should boot with root. Open Magisk, tap Install, and select Direct Install.
  8. Reboot your device. You should now be updated with root.
Note: If you prefer, you can update using the flash-all script included in the factory zip. You will have to copy the script, bootloader image, radio image, and update zip into the Platform Tools folder; you will then have to edit the script to remove the -w option so it doesn't wipe your device.
The scripted commands should look like this:
Code:
fastboot update bootloader <bootloader image name>
fastboot reboot bootloader
ping -n 5 127.0.0.1 > nul
fastboot update radio <radio image name>
fastboot reboot bootloader
ping -n 5 127.0.0.1 > nul
fastboot update  --skip-reboot --slot=all <image-device-buildnumber.zip>
Once this completes, you can reboot to bootloader and either boot your master patched image, or if you patched the new image, flash it at this time.

  1. Follow the instructions on the Android Flash Tool to update your device. Make sure Lock Bootloader and Wipe Device are UNCHECKED.
  2. When the update completes, the device will be in fastbootd. Reboot to bootloader.
  3. Boot the master root image (See note 1):
    Code:
    fastboot boot <drag and drop master root.img here>
    Note: If you prefer, you can download the factory zip and manually patch the new boot image, then flash it after the update. Do not flash an older boot image after updating.
  4. Your device should boot with root. Open Magisk, tap Install, and select Direct Install.
  5. Reboot your device. You should now be updated with root.

This is my configuration that is passing Safety Net. I will not provide instructions on how to accomplish this. Attempt at your own risk.

Zygisk + DenyList enabled
All subcomponents of these apps hidden under DenyList:
  • Google Play Store
  • GPay
  • Any banking/financial apps
  • Any DRM media apps
Modules:
To check SafetyNet status:
I do not provide support for Magisk or modules. If you need help with Magisk, here is the Magisk General Support thread. For support specifically with Magisk v24+, see this thread.

Points of note:
  • The boot image is NOT the bootloader image. Do not confuse the two - YOU are expected to know the difference. Flashing the wrong image to bootloader could brick your device.
  • While the Magisk app is used for patching the boot image, the app and the patch are separate. This is what you should see in Magisk for functioning root:
    screenshot_20211218-194517-png.5486339
  • "Installed" shows the version of patch in the boot image. If this says N/A, you do not have root access - the boot image is not patched, or you have a problem with Magisk.
  • "App" simply shows the version of the app itself.
  • If you do not have a patched master boot image, you will need to download the factory zip if you haven't already, extract the system update inside it, then patch boot.img.
  • If you prefer updating with the factory image, you can also extract and manually patch the boot image if desired.
  • Some Magisk modules, especially those that modify read only partitions like /system, may cause a boot loop after updating. As a general rule, disable these modules before updating. You are responsible for knowing what you have installed, and what modules to disable.


Credits:
Thanks to @ipdev , @kdrag0n , @Didgeridoohan , and last but not least, @topjohnwu for all their hard work!
 
Last edited:

Krsmqn

Senior Member
Jan 23, 2012
1,209
334
OnePlus 7 Pro
Google Pixel 5
As many of you know by now, in order to run a patched boot image on Android 12 requires disabling Android Boot Verification.

On Android 12, disabling verity and verification will require a data wipe if it hasn't been done before. What seems to "lock" the state of boot verification is booting into system; so, if you perform an update, or flash vbmeta without the disable flags, then reboot into Android, you have essentially enabled boot verification and will require a wipe to disable it again. Confusing, I know.

Here is the appropriate update process. DO NOT take the automatic OTA if you are rooted. If you allow the phone to reboot after an update without disabling boot verification, you will have to wipe in order to disable it again, as you would need to for a patched boot image.

***Note***: The boot image doesn't have to be patched before you perform the update. Some have found it works better to update, THEN patch the boot image.


OTA Sideload:
1. Download both the OTA and the factory zip.
2. Extract vbmeta.img and boot.img from the factory zip.
3. Patch the boot image and copy it back to your computer.
4. Reboot to recovery and sideload the OTA: select Apply Update via ADB, then on your PC:
Code:
adb sideload ota.zip
5. When the OTA completes, you will be in recovery mode. DO NOT REBOOT TO SYSTEM. Select "Reboot to bootloader".
6. Reflash vbmeta to disable boot verification:
Code:
fastboot flash vbmeta --disable-verity --disable-verification --slot=all vbmeta.img
7. Flash patched boot image:
Code:
fastboot flash boot --slot=all magisk_patched-23xxx_xxxxx.img
8. Reboot to system.



Factory update:
1. Download the factory zip.
2. Extract boot.img
3. Patch the boot image and copy it back to your computer.
4. Reboot to bootloader.
5. Apply update:
Code:
fastboot update --disable-verity --disable-verification --skip-reboot image-codename-buildnumber.zip
6. Flash patched boot image:
Code:
fastboot flash boot --slot=all magisk_patched-23xxx_xxxxx.img
7. Reboot to system.


Android Flash Tool:
1. Download the factory zip.
2. Extract boot.img
3. Patch the boot image and copy it back to your computer.
4. Reboot to bootloader.
5. Follow the instructions on the Android Flash Tool to update your device. The ONLY boxes you should check are "Disable Verity" and "Disable Verification"
6. When the update completes, the phone will reboot to system without root.
7. Reboot to bootloader and flash patched boot image:
Code:
fastboot flash boot --slot=all magisk_patched-23xxx_xxxxx.img
8. Reboot to system.


REMEMBER: The most critical part of this is making sure verity and verification are disabled during the update process before the phone reboots. If you forget to patch the boot image, that's OK - you don't have to flash /boot right after update.

If you have trouble with the patched boot image, simply flash /boot back to stock and allow Android to boot, then re-patch and re-flash the boot image.

You can also, if you want, boot the patched image instead of flashing it:
Code:
fastboot boot magisk_patched-23xxx_xxxxx.img
This is considered "temporary boot" as it loads the image from your PC rather than from device storage. You can use this to confirm root works, and if you so desire, you can then perform Direct Install in Magisk.
You Sir are all over these forums spreading helpful advice, and knowledge. I would just like to say Thank You for all you do here. It's so greatly appreciated. You are one of the many people who make this place so special.

Also, Thank You for your service to our country.
 

elong7681

Senior Member
May 23, 2015
499
167
40
US
Moto X4
Google Pixel 2 XL
@V0latyle can you link me to a web page that would list every adb and fastboot command that we as android modders would use. What I mean is I couldn't find a Google search that listed the fastboot command with --slot=all among other adb and fastboot commands
 

elong7681

Senior Member
May 23, 2015
499
167
40
US
Moto X4
Google Pixel 2 XL
You Sir are all over these forums spreading helpful advice, and knowledge. I would just like to say Thank You for all you do here. It's so greatly appreciated. You are one of the many people who make this place so special.

Also, Thank You for your service to our country.
I agree with @Krsmqn, @V0latyle THANK YOU FOR YOUR SERVICE !!!!! in the military and for your service in the xda community
 
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Krsmqn

Senior Member
Jan 23, 2012
1,209
334
OnePlus 7 Pro
Google Pixel 5
I used the Android Flash Tool method to update to the November build, and followed the instructions precisely. It worked flawlessly. My deny list is exactly the same in Magisk, and all my modules are working perfectly. I didn't even have to disable them. I think I will use this method from now on.
 
  • Like
Reactions: V0latyle

V0latyle

Forum Moderator
Staff member
You Sir are all over these forums spreading helpful advice, and knowledge. I would just like to say Thank You for all you do here. It's so greatly appreciated. You are one of the many people who make this place so special.

Also, Thank You for your service to our country.
I agree with @Krsmqn, @V0latyle THANK YOU FOR YOUR SERVICE !!!!! in the military and for your service in the xda community
Thanks guys, I appreciate it.
@V0latyle can you link me to a web page that would list every adb and fastboot command that we as android modders would use. What I mean is I couldn't find a Google search that listed the fastboot command with --slot=all among other adb and fastboot commands
Boy, I wish I had that handy, because I could sure use it too! I don't have your answer but hopefully someone else does, because believe me I'll be bookmarking it!
 
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Reactions: elong7681

thecompany

Senior Member
Dec 17, 2006
209
16
I think it's safer to unroot/remove Magisk and modules when going from 11 to 12 right? Some modules might not be compatible with 12 causing bootloops.
 

nico22320

Member
Oct 25, 2020
46
2
Thanks V0latyle !!
I follow the flash tool method for update from october to november on my pixel 5

Perfect update, no issues and all data ok 👍
 

nico22320

Member
Oct 25, 2020
46
2
Did you use Magisk canary? It is not necessary to check wipe in the android flash tool?
I use standard Magisk and can not change the update path to canary


No i use the beta version of magisk.

You need wipe only for update from Android 11 to Android 12.

Just follow the guide for update to november and enjoy 👍
 

nico22320

Member
Oct 25, 2020
46
2
The best way: save yours photos etc with your Google account and make a fresh install with Factory image on Android 12 ( with disable verity and vérification)

It's long for set up device but 100% of chance of work with no issues for futurs update 👍

Sûre you Can try to update without wipe and disable verity and vérification but maybe bootloops or not 🤷
 

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  • 2
    after holding off for months, I was forced to update from 11 to 12 (April patch) and attempted to use the factory img update method to do it while maintaining root. the update went smoothly and I do have root, but safetynet fails across the board. magisk is up to date and I have USNF. any ideas appreciated!
    I recommend using Canary 24306 until Stable 24.4 is released.

    I also recommend against using Riru unless you are using modules that explicitly require it. You're using the wrong version of USNF.

    On my Pixel 5, I'm passing SafetyNet with this configuration:
    • Stock ROM, stock kernel Magisk patched
    • Magisk Canary 24306, Zygisk and DenyList enabled
    • DenyList configured for Google Play Store (does not affect SafetyNet but will fail Play Protect)
    • Module: MagiskHide Props Config 6.1.2
    • Module: Universal SafetyNet Fix 2.2.1
    SafetyNet confirmed passing with YASNAC
    1
    looks like the out of date USNF was the culprit. thanks!
    magisk manager doesn't display the canary channel as an option for me, only stable and beta (and custom). should i just plug the canary channel link into custom? if so, where could i find that link?
    1
    looks like the out of date USNF was the culprit. thanks!
    magisk manager doesn't display the canary channel as an option for me, only stable and beta (and custom). should i just plug the canary channel link into custom? if so, where could i find that link?
    This post will help
  • 15
    If you are looking for my guide on a different Pixel, find it here:
    Update 4-28-22: While Magisk 24.0 has been updated for use with Android 12, many users are still having problems with patching the out of band OTA, so Canary 24306 is recommended.
    Discussion thread for migration to 24.0.

    DO NOT use any version of Magisk lower than Canary 23016 as it does not yet incorporate the necessary fixes for Android 12 and your device.


    WARNING: YOU AND YOU ALONE ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ANYTHING THAT HAPPENS TO YOUR DEVICE. THIS GUIDE IS WRITTEN WITH THE EXPRESS ASSUMPTION THAT YOU ARE FAMILIAR WITH ADB, MAGISK, ANDROID, AND ROOT. IT IS YOUR RESPONSIBILITY TO ENSURE YOU KNOW WHAT YOU ARE DOING.

    Prerequisites:


    Android Source - Setting up a device for development


    1. Follow these instructions to enable Developer Options and USB Debugging.
    2. Enable OEM Unlocking. If this option is grayed out, unlocking the bootloader is not possible.
    3. Connect your device to your PC, and open a command window in your Platform Tools folder.
    4. Ensure ADB sees your device:
      Code:
      adb devices
      If you don't see a device, make sure USB Debugging is enabled, reconnect the USB cable, or try a different USB cable.
      If you see "unauthorized", you need to authorize the connection on your device.
      If you see the device without "unauthorized", you're good to go.
    5. Reboot to bootloader:
      Code:
      adb reboot bootloader
    6. Unlock bootloader: THIS WILL WIPE YOUR DEVICE!
      Code:
      fastboot flashing unlock
      Select Continue on the device screen.

    1. Install Magisk on your device.
    2. Download the factory zip for your build.
    3. Inside the factory zip is the update zip: "device-image-buildnumber.zip". Open this, and extract boot.img
    4. Copy boot.img to your device.
    5. Patch boot.img with Magisk: "Install" > "Select and Patch a File"
    6. Copy the patched image back to your PC. It will be named "magisk_patched-23xxx_xxxxx.img". Rename this to "master root.img" and retain it for future updates.
    7. Reboot your device to bootloader.
    8. Flash the patched image:
      Code:
      fastboot flash boot <drag and drop master root.img here>
    9. Reboot to Android. Open Magisk to confirm root - under Magisk at the top, you should see "Installed: <Magisk build number>

    1. Before you download the OTA, open Magisk, tap Uninstall, then Restore Images. If you have any Magisk modules that modify system, uninstall them now.
    2. Take the OTA update when prompted. To check for updates manually, go to Settings > System > System Update > Check for Update
    3. Allow the update to download and install. DO NOT REBOOT WHEN PROMPTED. Open Magisk, tap Install at the top, then Install to inactive slot. Magisk will then reboot your device.
    4. You should now be updated with root.

    1. Download the OTA.
    2. Reboot to recovery and sideload the OTA:
      Code:
      adb reboot sideload
      Once in recovery:
      Code:
      adb sideload ota.zip
    3. When the OTA completes, you will be in recovery mode. Select "Reboot to system now".
    4. Allow system to boot and wait for the update to complete. You must let the system do this before proceeding.
    5. Reboot to bootloader.
    6. Boot the master root image (See note 1):
      Code:
      fastboot boot <drag and drop master root.img here>
      Note: If you prefer, you can download the factory zip and manually patch the new boot image, then flash it after the update. Do not flash an older boot image after updating.
    7. Your device should boot with root. Open Magisk, tap Install, and select Direct Install.
    8. Reboot your device. You should now be updated with root.
    Note: You can use Payload Dumper to extract the contents of the OTA if you want to manually patch the new boot image. However, I will not cover that in this guide.

    Please note that the factory update process expects an updated bootloader and radio. If these are not up to date, the update will fail.
    1. Download the factory zip and extract the contents.
    2. Reboot to bootloader.
    3. Compare bootloader versions between phone screen and bootloader.img build number
      Code:
      fastboot flash bootloader <drag and drop new bootloader.img here>
      If bootloader is updated, reboot to bootloader.
    4. Compare baseband versions between phone screen and radio.img build number
      Code:
      fastboot flash radio <drag and drop radio.img here>
      If radio is updated, reboot to bootloader.
    5. Apply update:
      Code:
      fastboot update --skip-reboot image-codename-buildnumber.zip
      When the update completes, the device will be in fastbootd. Reboot to bootloader.
    6. Boot the master root image (See note 1):
      Code:
      fastboot boot <drag and drop master root.img here>
      Note: If you prefer, you can manually patch the new boot image, then flash it after the update. Do not flash an older boot image after updating.
    7. Your device should boot with root. Open Magisk, tap Install, and select Direct Install.
    8. Reboot your device. You should now be updated with root.
    Note: If you prefer, you can update using the flash-all script included in the factory zip. You will have to copy the script, bootloader image, radio image, and update zip into the Platform Tools folder; you will then have to edit the script to remove the -w option so it doesn't wipe your device.
    The scripted commands should look like this:
    Code:
    fastboot update bootloader <bootloader image name>
    fastboot reboot bootloader
    ping -n 5 127.0.0.1 > nul
    fastboot update radio <radio image name>
    fastboot reboot bootloader
    ping -n 5 127.0.0.1 > nul
    fastboot update  --skip-reboot --slot=all <image-device-buildnumber.zip>
    Once this completes, you can reboot to bootloader and either boot your master patched image, or if you patched the new image, flash it at this time.

    1. Follow the instructions on the Android Flash Tool to update your device. Make sure Lock Bootloader and Wipe Device are UNCHECKED.
    2. When the update completes, the device will be in fastbootd. Reboot to bootloader.
    3. Boot the master root image (See note 1):
      Code:
      fastboot boot <drag and drop master root.img here>
      Note: If you prefer, you can download the factory zip and manually patch the new boot image, then flash it after the update. Do not flash an older boot image after updating.
    4. Your device should boot with root. Open Magisk, tap Install, and select Direct Install.
    5. Reboot your device. You should now be updated with root.

    This is my configuration that is passing Safety Net. I will not provide instructions on how to accomplish this. Attempt at your own risk.

    Zygisk + DenyList enabled
    All subcomponents of these apps hidden under DenyList:
    • Google Play Store
    • GPay
    • Any banking/financial apps
    • Any DRM media apps
    Modules:
    To check SafetyNet status:
    I do not provide support for Magisk or modules. If you need help with Magisk, here is the Magisk General Support thread. For support specifically with Magisk v24+, see this thread.

    Points of note:
    • The boot image is NOT the bootloader image. Do not confuse the two - YOU are expected to know the difference. Flashing the wrong image to bootloader could brick your device.
    • While the Magisk app is used for patching the boot image, the app and the patch are separate. This is what you should see in Magisk for functioning root:
      screenshot_20211218-194517-png.5486339
    • "Installed" shows the version of patch in the boot image. If this says N/A, you do not have root access - the boot image is not patched, or you have a problem with Magisk.
    • "App" simply shows the version of the app itself.
    • If you do not have a patched master boot image, you will need to download the factory zip if you haven't already, extract the system update inside it, then patch boot.img.
    • If you prefer updating with the factory image, you can also extract and manually patch the boot image if desired.
    • Some Magisk modules, especially those that modify read only partitions like /system, may cause a boot loop after updating. As a general rule, disable these modules before updating. You are responsible for knowing what you have installed, and what modules to disable.


    Credits:
    Thanks to @ipdev , @kdrag0n , @Didgeridoohan , and last but not least, @topjohnwu for all their hard work!
    6
    Magisk Canary was updated to 23016 last night. This includes a fix for the vbmeta header issue, meaning that disabling verity/verification should no longer be required, and we should be able to root as we did before. This needs testing, make sure you back up your data and photos before you try this!

    Q: "If verity/verification are disabled, do I need to enable them now?"
    A: No. The only thing you have to do is update to Magisk 23016.
    Q: "Will enabling verity/verification wipe my data?"
    A: No.

    I will be updating the OP to reflect this.
    4
    For those who are wondering, this is how I updated my Pixel 5 (and my wife's 5a):
    1. Download and extract the factory image
    2. Extract boot.img from the factory update image
    3. Copied boot.img to device, patched in Magisk, copied patched boot image back to update folder
    4. Reboot device to bootloader
    5. Apply update:
      Code:
      fastboot update device-image-buildnumber.zip
    6. Let device boot and finish update; reboot to bootloader
    7. Boot patched image:
      Code:
      fastboot boot magisk_patched-23016_xxxxx.img
    8. Open Magisk, tap Install, Direct Install, then reboot.
    9. Done.
    You can potentially save a couple steps by using --skip-reboot when applying the update, then simply rebooting to bootloader and flashing the patched boot image.

    Note: I manually patched the boot image because I didn't have a 23016 boot image handy.
    4
    For those who are wondering, this is how I updated my Pixel 5 (and my wife's 5a):
    1. Download and extract the factory image
    2. Extract boot.img from the factory update image
    3. Copied boot.img to device, patched in Magisk, copied patched boot image back to update folder
    4. Reboot device to bootloader
    5. Apply update:
      Code:
      fastboot update device-image-buildnumber.zip
    6. Let device boot and finish update; reboot to bootloader
    7. Boot patched image:
      Code:
      fastboot boot magisk_patched-23016_xxxxx.img
    8. Open Magisk, tap Install, Direct Install, then reboot.
    9. Done.
    You can potentially save a couple steps by using --skip-reboot when applying the update, then simply rebooting to bootloader and flashing the patched boot image.

    Note: I manually patched the boot image because I didn't have a 23016 boot image handy.
    Confirmed working

    Just applied January update like how I have always been doing on Android 11. This wouldn't be possible without Magisk version 23016
    4
    @TKruzze @V0latyle If you're using USNF it doesn't matter if you add the necessary gms components to the Deny listh. The module will always remove them since keeping them on the list will actually keep USNF from doing it's thing.

    For simple SafetyNet pass Universal SafetyNet Fix is all you need (and possibly MagiskHide Props Config if you need to spoof a device fingerprint).