[INFO] WaccoPedia - Sharing is Caring

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Wacco001

Senior Member
Mar 26, 2011
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2,367
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Sharing is Caring - Caring is Helping - Helping is Sharing
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Purpose of this thread is to share some useful basic information as gathered using my (rooted) HTC Desire HD, and is meant as non posting/replying reference only thread.

Thanks to all who've posted useful info, helped me with all my questions and contributed their knowledge and skills with the community.
Special thanks to Mike1986 and all ARHD team members for showing skills, respect, patience and humor.
and
BIG respect for all great people I've met on various forums and sites for making great Android ROMs, MODs Themes, Apps, Scripts etc. and for all the posts containing useful and friendly information.



Kernel: "abbreviations"
Governors:
Radio: Preferred Network types and info
RUU (ROM Upgrade Utility):
Android Partitions:
Android: Anatomy and Physiology
CID: Carrier ID (+ some codes)


GLOSSARY
Code:
[B]2G[/B]
The second generation of mobile telephony systems uses digital encoding. 2G networks support high bit rate voice, limited data communications and different levels of encryption. 2G networks include GSM, D-AMPS (TDMA) and CDMA. 2G networks can support SMS applications.

2.5G
2.5G extends 2G systems, adding features such as packet-switched connection and enhanced data rates. 2.5G networks include EDGE and GPRS. These networks support WAP, MMS, SMS mobile games, and search and directory.

[B]3G[/B]
The third generation of mobile systems provides high-speed data transmissions of 144Kbps and higher. 3G will support multimedia applications such as full-motion video, video conferencing and Internet access.

[B]4G[/B]
As of the end of 2009 it was consensus that 4G would designate Mobile Network technologies beyond 3G and its extensions "3,5G" (HSPA) , "3,75G" (HSPA+). These would logically include WiMax and LTE. In the beginning of 2011 carriers in the US started to misuse the term, advertising their HSPA networks as 4G press coverage on thisismynext Officially, the term 4G has been defined by the ITU to include LTE-Advanced and WirelessMAN-Advanced (WiMax2), none of witch are deployed anywhere still. GSMA PR

802.1X
As the IEEE standard for access control for wireless and wired LANs, 802.1x provides a means of authenticating and authorizing devices to attach to a LAN port. This standard defines the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which uses a central authentication server to authenticate each user on the network.

802.11
The IEEE standard for wireless Local Area Networks. It uses three different physical layers, 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g.

802.11a
Operating in the 5 GHz band, 802.11a supports a maximum theoretical data rate of 54 Mbps, but more realistically it will achieve throughput somewhere between 20 Mbps to 25 Mbps in normal traffic conditions. In a typical office environment, its maximum range is 50 meters (150 feet) at the lowest speed, but at higher speed, the range is less than 25 meters (75 feet). 802.11a has four, eight, or more channels, depending on the country. WLAN products based on 802.11a technology are rapidly coming to market in 2003, making them more affordable and widely available.

802.11b
Most WLANs deployed today use 802.11b technology, which operates in the 2.4 GHz band and supports a maximum theoretical data rate of 11 Mbps, with average throughput falling in the 4 Mbps to 6 Mbps range. In a typical office environment, its maximum range is 75 meters (250 feet) at the lowest speed, but at higher speed its range is about 30 meters (100 feet). Bluetooth devices, 2.4 GHz cordless phones and even microwave ovens are sources of interference (and thus create poor performance) for 802.11b networks. Minimizing interference can be difficult because 802.11b uses only three non-overlapping channels. 802.11b products have been shipping in quantity for several years so you will find that products are plentiful and affordable.

802.11e
802.11e provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for LAN applications, which will be critical for delay-sensitive applications such as Voice over Wireless IP (VoWIP). The standard will provide classes of service with managed levels of QoS for data, voice, and video applications.

802.11g
The 802.11 task force is still developing 802.11g, and it is expected to be ratified as a standard by mid-2003. 802.11g offers the throughput of 802.11a with the backward compatibility of 802.11b. 802.11g will operate in the 2.4 GHz band but it will deliver data rates from 6 Mbps to 54 Mbps. Like 802.11b, it will have up to three non-overlapping channels. 802.11g uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation as does 802.11a, but, for backward compatibility with 11b, it also supports complementary code keying (CCK) modulation and, as an option for faster link rates, allows packet binary convolutional coding (PBCC) modulation.
Its "backward compatibility" with 802.11b means that when a mobile 802.11b device joins an 802.11g access point, all connections on that access point slow down to 802.11b speeds.

802.11h
This standard is supplementary to the MAC layer to comply with European regulations for 5GHz WLANs. European radio regulations for the 5GHz band require products to have transmission power control (TPC) and dynamic frequency selection (DFS). TPC limits the transmitted power to the minimum needed to reach the furthest user. DFS selects the radio channel at the access point to minimize interference with other systems, particularly radar. Pan-European approval of 802.11h is not expected until the end of 2003.

802.15
This IEEE working group addresses the standard for WPANs. It has four active task groups.
802.15.1 had the job of delivering the standard for low-speed, low-cost WPANs and is based on the Bluetooth spec.
The 802.15.2 task group is developing the recommended practices on how 802.11 WLANs and 802.15 WPANs can co-exist in the 2.4 GHz band. It is mainly working on the interference problem between Bluetooth and 802.11.
The 802.15.3 task group is delivering a standard for higher speed WPANs from 10 Mbps to 55 Mbps at distances less than 10 meters.
The 802.15.4 task group is preparing a standard for simple, low-cost, low-speed WPANs. Data ranges from 2 Kbps to 200 Kbps and uses DSSS modulation in the 2.4 GHz and 915 MHz ranges.

.apk or APK's
An .apk file extension denotes an Android Package (APK) file, an .apk file can be opened and inspected using common archive tools

.tar
Similar to a zip file, a tar file archives multiple files into one file

.tgz
TGZ files are commonly used as install packages for Slackware Linux.

ActiveSync
This program by Microsoft is what we all use to connect to our computers at work or at home. It allows contacts, tasks, emails and Calendar events to be synchronised with Outlook as well as such things as media and favorites. In Windows Vista this has been replaced by the Windows Mobile Device Center. In addition ActiveSync allows browsing of the device in Windows Explorer and programs can be installed via an 'InstallShield' type package installer. AES - Advanced Encryption Standard.
Security issues are a major concern for wireless LANs. AES is the U.S. government's next-generation cryptography algorithm, which will replace DES and 3DES.

AKU
Adaptation Kit Update - Starting with Windows Mobile 5 Microsoft began a policy of updates similar to that of the desktop windows. Rather the replacing the whole OS some functionality may be added. For example AKU 2.0 introduced push mail. These updates are distributed through the OEMs and are given to the consumer in form of ROM updates. Note that OEM may choose not to create an update with the latest AKU for their devices. Getting an AKU for your phone is like getting the SP2 (Service Pack 2) for your Windows Xp.

AP - Access Point.
Wireless devices, such as laptops or PDAs, connect to a wired LAN via an AP, which is a hardware device or a computer's software that acts as a communication hub. APs provide heightened wireless security and extend the physical range of a wireless LAN.

Application Unlock
Most Windows Mobile phones only allow you to load applications that have an acceptable digital signature. If you try to edit the registry or load an application it will give you an error. Application Unlocking removes this barrier and allows you to install any application or edit the registry to your liking.

Bluetooth
A wireless technology developed by Ericsson, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba that specifies how mobile phones, computers and PDAs interconnect with each other, with computers, and with office or home phones. The technology enables data connections between electronic devices in the 2.4 GHz range. Bluetooth would replace cable or infrared connections for such devices.

Bootloader
The bootloader is the first thing to load once you turn on the device, this does the job of booting up the device hardware and loading various items into memory before the ROM starts in the device. The bootloader is also responsible for enabling the flashing of new ROMs and other components such as the Radio and the Ext_ROM. Two modified bootloaders for the Hermes are HardSPL and SSPL.
To enter the bootloader, press and hold the OK and POWER buttons while inserting the stylus into the reset hole on the bottom of the Hermes.

BREW - Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless
Developed by Qualcomm, BREW is an open source application development platform for wireless devices. BREW developers can create portable applications that work on any CDMA handset. Applications include SMS, e-mail, location positioning, games and Internet radio.
When first introduced, BREW was solely for CDMA handsets. BREW has since been enabled for GSM handsets and expects to add TDMA handsets. BREW and J2ME are competing head-to-head for the wireless application development market.

CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
A digital wireless technology that uses a spread spectrum technique to scatter a radio signal across a wide range of frequencies. CDMA is a 2G technology. WCDMA, a 3G technology, is based on CDMA.
CDMA has multiple variants, including CDMA 1X, cdma2000, CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and cdmaOne.

CID
The CID (Carrier ID) of the device is a setting which determines which carrier ROMs should be allowed to run on the device. All bootloaders (apart from HardSPL and SSPL) will only allow a ROM with the correct CID to be flashed onto the device. A device which has been CID unlocked will have SuperCID which allows ANY ROM to be loaded onto the device, SuperCID also unlocks the Ext_ROM and allows it to be mounted.

CID Unlock
Load any carrier ROM (in any language) on the device.

CLDC - Connected Limited Device Configuration
CLDC outlines the basic set of libraries and Java virtual machine features that must be present in each implementation of a J2ME environment.

Cooked
Refers to ROMs which have been modified and optimised by users to offer better performance than a carrier ROM

CustomRUU
CustomRUU is an RUU (Rom Upgrade Utility) which has support for ALL SPL versions including HardSPL and SSPL.

Dalvik (cache)
Dalvik cache is a program cache area for the program dalvik. Dalvik is a java based virtual machine that is the bases for running your programs (the ones that have the .apk extension). In order to make access times faster (because there's not JIT (just in time) compiler installed by default), the dalvik-cache is the result of dalvik doing a optimization of the running program.

De-Odex
Android uses a a java based virtual machine as the bases for running programs. This virtual machine is called Dalvik. A .dex file contains the cache used by the Dalvik VM (called Dalvik-cache) for a program and is stored inside the .apk. A .odex file is an optimized version of the .dex file which gets stored next to the .apk as opposed to inside the .apk. This process is done by default to system apps. Deodexing is the process of converting the .odex files back into .dex to be stored inside the .apk so that things can be more easily modified. So a deodexed rom is one that has been through the deodexing process. Deodex can just as easily be called Unodex or any other pre-fix you wish to use.

EDGE - Enhanced Data GSM Environment
A 2.5G technology that enhances GSM. EDGE increases transmission speeds on GSM networks and enables the transmission of large amounts of data at 384Kbps. With EDGE, mobile operators can deliver multimedia and other broadband applications to mobile phones.

EPOC
EPOC is an operating system developed by Symbian for small, portable computer-telephones with wireless access to phone and other information services. EPOC is based on an earlier operating system from Psion, the first major manufacturer of personal digital assistants (PDAs). The term is no longer in use and is now referred to as Symbian OS.

Ext_ROM or ExtROM
The Ext_ROM (or Extended Rom) is a dedicated part of the ROM memory that is (by default) hidden to the user. This area typically includes cab files that are loaded upon Hard Reset. Also, if the author of a ROM wishes, the flashing process can preserve the Ext_Rom. This space is frequently used by carriers, or others creating ROMs, to store cabs that load settings onto the phone.

Firmware
This is a piece of software that is stored in a device to make it function. It is, unlike ordinary software, usually semi-permanent and resides in a non-volatile storage area which is unaffected by "hard resetting" a device. The term usually refers to low-level code that controls individual hardware components such as a radio rom.

Flash
Term meaning to write something (usually a ROM image) to a non-volatile chip. The term originates from original chip writers (EPROM blowers) which used to write to a chip by fusing tiny areas in the chip making individual links either short circuit or open circuit.

GPRS - General Packet Radio Service
GPRS is a radio technology for GSM networks that adds packet-switching protocols. As a 2.5G technology, GPRS enables high-speed wireless Internet and other data communications. GPRS networks can deliver SMS, MMS, email, games and WAP applications.

GPS
This stands for Global Positioning System. It is technology whereby your device communicates with satellites in orbit around the planet to determine your location within an error margin of a few meters.

GSM - Global System for Mobile communications
GSM, a 2G technology, is the de facto European standard for digital cellular telephone service, and it is also available in the Americas. GSM is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephone technologies (TDMA, GSM and CDMA), and it supports voice, data, text messaging and cross-border roaming. The SIM (Subscriber Identification Module), a removable plastic card that contains a users data, is an essential element in a GSM network.
GSM operates in multiple frequency bands, GSM 900, GSM 1800, GSM 1900. When GSM is working on a radio frequency of 1800 MHz, it is sometimes referred to as DCS 1800, GSM1800 or PCN.

H.323
H.323 is the standard for interoperability in audio, video, and data transmissions, as well as Internet phone and Voice over IP. The standard addresses call control and management for point-to-point and multipoint conferences, as well as gateway administration of media traffic, bandwidth, and user participation.

HardSPL
This modified bootloader allows a much safer flashing process to take place since it reduces the chance of permenently bricking your HTC based device. It also removes the need to CID Unlock the device since it ALWAYS reports SuperCID when flashing.

Hard Reset
Similar to a soft reset, by performing a hard reset you completely wipe your device and restore it to the position it was in when you first turned the device on after it was purchased or after a new ROM is flashed.

HDML - Handheld Device Markup Language
Handheld Device Markup Language is used to format content for Web-enabled mobile phones. HDML allows Internet access from wireless devices and is derived from HTML. Openwave created this proprietary language, and it can only be viewed on mobile phones that use Openwave browsers.
HDML was created before a WAP standard was defined. It uses Openwave's Handheld Device Transport Protocol (HDTP) instead of WAP. HDTP - Handheld Device Transport Protocol.
This protocol is optimized for HDML. It presents the HDML to the HDML interpreter in an appropriate format.

Heimdall
is a cross-platform open-source tool suite used to flash firmware (aka ROMs) onto Samsung Galaxy S device

IDEN
A specialized mobile radio network technology that combines two-way radio, telephone, text messaging and data transmission into one network.

IPL
Initial program load - usually paired with Secondary Program Load (SPL), is the boot loader of your phone, much like the BIOS is the boot loader for your PC. Note: IPL/SPL are highly hardware dependent, flashing the wrong IPL/SPL is much more serious than a flashing the wrong ROM. It may be noted that, sometimes a ROM package also contains the IPL/SPL which will be flashed into your phone. Hence be extra careful what you are flashing. 

J2ME - Java 2 Micro Edition.
Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME) is the edition of the Java platform that is targeted at small, standalone or connectable consumer and embedded devices, such as cellular phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). The J2ME technology consists of a virtual machine and a set of APIs suitable for tailored runtime environments for these devices. The J2ME technology has two primary kinds of components--configurations and profiles.

Java
Industry standard object-oriented language and virtual machine, invented by Sun Microsystems and formally released in 1996. Some phones support downloading of Java applications over the WAP connection. Sun's Java specifications include many Java APIs and platforms, including the JavaPhone API and PersonalJava platform.

Kang
The process of creating a code based of someone else's code or reapplying code that someone else created into your own code (e.g. git cherry-pick)

Kernel
The central or core software component of most operating systems. Its responsibilities include managing the system's resources (the communication between hardware and software components) and can provide the lowest-level abstraction layer for resources (especially memory, processors, and I/O devices).

Messaging
SMS (Short Message Service) is a feature available with some wireless phones that allows users to send and/or receive short alphanumeric messages.
Picture Messaging allows users to send and receive picture messages along with text. Users can choose from several preset and/or received pictures stored in their phones. Some phones also contain a picture editor.
Chat Messaging lets users "talk" using SMS messages.
MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) is a new standard that is being defined for use in advanced wireless terminals. The service allows for non-real-time transmission of various kinds of multimedia content, such as images, audio, and video clips.

MexE - Mobile Station Application Execution Environment.
Mobile Station Application Execution Environment is a framework to ensure a predictable environment for third-party applications in GSM or UMTS handsets. MExE does this by defining different technology requirements called "classmarks." MExE classmark 1 is based on WAP, classmark 2 on PersonalJava and JavaPhone, and classmark 3 on J2ME CLDC and MIDP. Other classmarks may be defined in the future. MExE specifies additional requirements for all classmarks, for instance a security environment, capability and content negotiation, a user profile, user interface personalization, management of services and virtual home environment. A handset can support multiple classmarks.

Microbrowser
Also called a mini-browser. Software built into a wireless device that allows users to access and display specially formatted Internet content, such as stock reports, news, and sports scores using a handset device.

Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP)
Set of Java APIs that is generally implemented on the Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC). It provides a basic J2ME application runtime environment targeted at mobile information devices, such as mobile phones and two-way pagers. The MIDP specification addresses issues such as user interface, persistent storage, networking, and application model.

Nandroid or Nandroid Backup:
A file typically created in the custom recovery program, such as 4EXT Recovery, that is a carbon copy of whatever state your phone is in. The file is typically stored on the SD card for later use in case something should go wrong in a ROM or Update, or a Boot Loop occurs

.NET Compact Framework
The .NET Compact framework is a smaller version of the .NET Common Language Runtime, optimized for the deployment of mobile applications running on resource-constrained devices such as PDAs. .NET CF supports only devices running Microsoft operating systems-specifically, Windows CE 3.0 (used in Pocket PC 2000 and Pocket PC 2002 platforms).

OBEX - Object Exchange
Object Exchange is a set of protocols allowing objects such as vCard contact information and vCalendar schedule entries to be exchanged using either IrDA or Bluetooth. Symbian OS implements IrDA for exchange of vCards, for example between a Nokia 9210 Communicator and an Ericsson R380 Smartphone, and vCalendar.

OS
Operating System - the platform software for your phone, much like Windows 7 for your PC. Upgrading the OS is like, in PC terms upgrading from Windows Vista to Windows 7.

OC - OverClocking
Overclocking is the process of running a computer component at a higher clock rate (more clock cycles per second) than it was designed for or was specified by the manufacturer

PAN - Personal Area Network
Allows devices to work together and share information and services. Using technologies such as Bluetooth, Personal Area Networks can be created in public places, in the home, in the office, in a car. This network enables everyday devices to communicate wirelessly. For example, a PAN allows users the ability to wirelessly synchronize with a desktop device to access e-mail or the Internet.

Protocol
Similar to `Radio`. Both terms refer to the radio protocol stack, which is the software which handles communications with the mobile network.

QoS - Quality of Service
Quality of Service is a measure of network performance that reflects the network's transmission quality and service availability. QoS can come in the form of traffic policy in which the transmission rates are limited, thereby guaranteeing a certain amount of bandwidth will be available to applications. Or QoS may take the form of traffic shaping, which are techniques to reserve bandwidth for applications but not guarantee its availability.

Radio
The radio stack is responsible for the phone functionality of the device. This includes GPRS, GSM, UMTS, and GPS operations. The version you use depends on who your carrier is as users have reported versions working better on one carrier than the other.

ROM - Read Only Memory
The ROM holds the Operating system and other components such as the bluetooth and wifi stacks. The ROM is accompanied by the Radio, Ext_ROM, SPL and IPL. Carriers such as T-mobile or Vodaphone taylor the ROM to their specifications and version numbers do not carry the same meaning across different carriers. IF the carrier you use supports the device well they will usually release regular ROM updates.

Root
Common word associated with giving a user "super user" access to their phones programming and other various asspects that would normaly not be possible.

RTM
Release to manufacturing or Ready to market.

RUU
The RUU (Rom Upgrade Utility) is the program which runs on the pc when a new ROM is flashed.

Sense
HTC Sense is a user interface, based on the TouchFlo 3D user interface, developed by HTC for mobile devices running Android and Windows Mobile. HTC Sense is a “design experience, an architecture that is all about how people use the device, making their content personal to how they use the device.” However, HTC has confused the issue by calling HTC Sense a user interface in press releases about the launch of the HTC Hero in India. Announced June 24, 2009, the first phone running Android to feature HTC Sense was the HTC Hero, and the first Windows Phone to feature HTC Sense (an updated TouchFlo) was the HTC HD2, announced October 6, 2009.

SIM - Subscriber Identity Module
Cellular systems using GSM technology employ SIM modules to store user provisioning information. Non-volitale storage for contact information is also available on these modules. This is also commonly used in the form `SIM unlock`. Some phones are locked to the specific telco from which you purchase your phone, eg you can't use a locked O2 phone using a Vodaphone SIM/smart card. To use SIM card from other telco, you need to SIM unlock your phone. Note: In general, the phrase 'unlock your phone' usually refers to SIM-unlock, not CID unlock.

SIM Unlock
Use any carrier's SIM in the device.

SIP - Session Initiation Protocol
SIP is the real-time communication protocol for Voice over IP (VoIP), and it has been expanded to support video and instant-messaging applications. SIP performs basic call-control tasks, such as session set up and tear down and signaling for features such as hold, caller ID and call transferring. Its functions are similar to Signaling System 7 (SS7) in standard telephony and H.323 or Media Gateway Control Protocol in IP telephony.
With SIP, most of the intelligence for call setup and features resides on the SIP device or user agent, such as an IP phone or a PC with voice or instant-messaging software. In contrast, traditional telephony or H.323-based telephony uses a model of intelligent, centralized phone switches with dumb phones.

SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol
SOAP is a way for a program running in one kind of operating system to communicate with a program in the same or another kind of an operating system using HTTP and XML.

Soft Reset
Soft resetting the device will lose all the data currently in RAM and any unsaved information, much like pressing the reset button on your pc. A soft reset is the first thing to try if your device has stopped responding.

SPL
Secondary Program Loader. Refer to `IPL` or `Bootloader` for further information.

SU
"Super user", or root permissions

SuperCID
By CID unlocking your device the value of the CID is changed to 'SuperCID'. This allows the flashing of ANY ROM to the device regardless of the carrier and also unlocks the read/write capability of the Ext_ROM.

UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
The 3G mobile telephone standard in Europe, standardized by ETSI. It supports a theoretical data throughput of up to 2 Mbps. Initial trials began in 2001, and it should be rolled out in most of the world by 2005.

UV - UnderVolting
Undervolting is the process of lowering the voltage supplied to the processor in order to achieve lower temperatures and/or saving battery

VoIP - Voice Over IP
VoIP is a set of technologies that enables voice to be sent over a packet network. While few corporations use VoIP today, its usage for messaging is expected to explode in the coming two years.
Users can communicate using VoIP as easily as they do with today's PBXes and public phone network. By leveraging the existing data network, companies can save significant amounts of money by using VoIP for toll-bypass, which is particularly important for multinational corporations. VoIP will also speed the adoption of unified messaging by transmitting voice, fax and e-mail messages. VoIP is also known as IP telephony.
Over the next several years, companies will deploy VoIP in conjunction with 802.11 wireless LANs, enabling workers to have WLAN-based mobile phones when in the office.

VoWIP - Voice over Wireless IP
Combining VoIP with 802.11 wireless LANs to create a wireless telephone system for offices is an emerging market segment. VoWIP enables businesses to leverage their wireless LANs to add voice communications, enabling companies to deploy and manage voice and data over a single wireless backbone.
From a network perspective, VoWIP applications require some reservation of bandwidth to support the real-time nature of voice. Proprietary standards like Spectralink Voice Priority (SVP) are today's solution; however, the IEEE is developing the 802.11e standard for quality of service as a long-term solution.
NOTE:
Thread is under construction, so please accept my appologies regarding not finished/updated posts or typo's

No claims can be made regarding content that I share. Consider this thread as "my private reference"

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Wacco001

Senior Member
Mar 26, 2011
2,122
2,367
.. just around the corner !
Kernel: "abbreviations"

A kernel is a layer of code that allows the OS and applications to interface with your phone's hardware. The degree in which you can access your phone's hardware features depends on the quality of code in the kernel. The homebrew (rooting) community for HTC has made several kernel code improvements that give us additional features from our hardware that the stock kernel does not. When you flash a custom ROM, you automatically get a kernel. But you can also flash a standalone kernel on top of the existing one, effectively overwriting it.

A quick and brief overview of some kernel "abbreviations" I've found ..

OC 1.6 - Over Clock max 1,6GHz
OC+1.9 - Over Clock max 1,9GHz
2WCR - Two Way Call Recording support - now you can record incoming and outgoing calls (takes the audio direct from the chipset line in/out)
NCR - No Call Recording support
BFS - Brain **** Scheduler is a task scheduler - major performance increase over stock CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) -> is not recommended for ROM with Sense
VIO - V(r) Input/Output scheduler - controls data input and output (memory card, disk, etc..) - stock kernel has CFQ
SLQB - a low level memory allocator/manager
MIUI - kernel for MIUI ROM
CFS - Completely Fair Scheduler
CIFS - Common Internet File System (is a virtual file system for Linux to allow access to servers and storage appliances compliant with the SNIA CIFS Specification)
TUN - VPN support
VR - I/O scheduler (better than NOOP)
NOOP - The NOOP scheduler is the simplest I/O scheduler for the Linux kernel.
VDD - Voltage Drain Drain (refers to the positive operating voltage of a field effect semiconductor device.)
NLS - National Language Support
 
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Wacco001

Senior Member
Mar 26, 2011
2,122
2,367
.. just around the corner !
Governors:

CPU governors control exactly how the CPU scales between your "max" and "min" set frequencies.

- ondemand -> Available in most kernels, and the default governor in most kernels.
When the CPU load reaches a certain point, ondemand will rapidly scale the CPU up to meet demand, then gradually scale the CPU down when it isn't needed.
- conservative -> Available in some kernels. It is similar to the ondemand governor, but will scale the CPU up more gradually to better fit demand.
Conservative provides a less responsive experience than ondemand, but can save battery.
- performance -> Available in most kernels. It will keep the CPU running at the "max" set value at all times.
This is a bit more efficient than simply setting "max" and "min" to the same value and using ondemand because the system will not waste resources scanning for the CPU load. This governor is recommended for stable benchmarking.
- powersave -> Available in some kernels. It will keep the CPU running at the "min" set value at all times.
- userspace -> This lets programs that runs on the OS decide the CPU frequency.
- interactive -> The 'interactive' governor has a different approach. Instead of sampling the cpu at a specified rate, the governor will scale the cpu frequency up when coming out of idle.
When the cpu comes out of idle, a timer is configured to fire within 1-2 ticks. If the cpu is 100% busy from exiting idle to when the timer fires then we assume the cpu is underpowered and ramp to MAX speed.
If the cpu was not 100% busy, then the governor evaluates the cpu load over the last 'min_sample_rate' (default 50000 uS) to determine the cpu speed to ramp down to.
- smartass -> Is an improved version of interactive governor (Best explanation i've found paraphrases to: based on interactive, but better.)
(smartass is a "double" governor (near interactive - awake mode, near conservative (but not the same) - sleep mode), so when you use it in sleep mode, actually you use only a "half" of it.
- smoothass -> (improved smartass)
- brazilianwax -> Very agresive version of smartass
- interactiveX -> Tweaked Interactive governor by Imoseyon by adding more features like suspend/wake profile
- ondemandX -> Tweaked and ported from 2.6.38 base Ondemand governor by Imoseyon by adding more features like suspend/wake profile
It's got its own sleep profile built in, so it doesn't play well with the OC daemon ..!
- smartassV2 -> smartassV2 is generally based on the implementation of interactive with some major changes and the addition of a built in sleep profile (behaves a bit differently when screen is off vs. on).
The smartassV2 improves the very naive scheme which the first smartass had.
- lagfree -> lag free, but not that battery friendly as ondemand


Note: as far as I could find it, smartass2 = smoothass. Original it was called smartass2, but the name has been changed into smoothass.

* wake_min_freq = setting -> minimal frequency for device while it's awake
* wake_max_freq = setting -> maximal frequency for device while it's awake
* sleep_min_freq = setting -> minimal frequency for device while it's sleeping
* sleep_max_freq = setting -> maximal frequency for device while it's sleeping
* wake_governor = governor for device while it's awake
* sleep_governor = governor for device while it's sleeping
 
Last edited:

Wacco001

Senior Member
Mar 26, 2011
2,122
2,367
.. just around the corner !
Radio: Preferred Network types and info

GSM => GSM(2G), GPRS(2.5G), EDGE(2.75G), UMTS(3G), WCDMA(3G), HSDPA(3.5G/3G+) HSUPA(3.75G) {Cell Carrier examples: AT&T and T-Mobile}
CDMA => CDMA(2/3G) EV-DO(3G) WiMax(3/4G) {Cell Carrier examples: Verizon and Sprint}

HSPA+ Evolved High Speed Packet Access (84 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink)
H: HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (Category 8 - 7.2 / Category 10 - 14,0 Mbit/s in the downlink)
H: HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access (Category 6 - 5.76 Mbit/s in the uplink)
3G: UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (384 kbit/s -> (max 2 Mbit)
E: EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (384 kbit/s)
G: GPRS General Packet Radio Service (52 kbit/s)
GSM Global System for Mobile Communications (14.4 kbit/s)

Remark:
The ROM has a file called "build.prop" with various important settings in it.
One of these settings is "ro.ril.hsxpa=2", this means you (might) have/use a HSDPA/HSUPA network (also called "HSPA") with high speed downloads and uploads, and this setting gives you the "U" in the radio name found in "Settings - About phone - Software information - More - (Baseband version)"

Code:
ro.ril.hsxpa indicates hsxpa support of the target network:
#
# Network parameters 
#
#ro.ril.hsxpa : inidcates hsxpa support of target network :
# 0 - UMTS r99
# 1 - HSDPA
# 2 - HSDPA/HSUPA
#
#ro.ril.gprsclass : inidcates GPRS class of target network :
# Class 2 : 3 slots : 8 - 12 kbps upload / 16 - 24 kbps download
# Class 4 : 4 slots : 8 - 12 kbps upload / 24 - 36 kbps download
# Class 6 : 4 slots : 24 - 36 kbps upload / 24 - 36 kbps download
# Class 8 : 5 slots : 8 - 12 kbps upload / 32 - 40 kbps download
# Class 10 : 5 slots : 16 - 24 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps download
# Class 12 : 5 slots : 32 - 48 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps download
#
#ro.ril.hsdpa.category :
# Cat 1 = 1.2 Mbit/s
# Cat 2 = 1.2 Mbit/s
# Cat 3 = 1.8 Mbit/s
# Cat 4 = 1.8 Mbit/s
# Cat 5 = 3.6 Mbit/s
# Cat 6 = 3.6 Mbit/s
# Cat 7 = 7.2 Mbit/s
# Cat 8 = 7.2 Mbit/s
# Cat 9 = 10.1 Mbit/s
# Cat 10 = 14.0 Mbit/s
# Cat 11 = 0.9 Mbit/s
# Cat 12 = 1.8 Mbit/s
# Cat 13 = 17.6 Mbit/s
# Cat 14 = 21.1 Mbit/s
# Cat 15 = 23.4 Mbit/s
# Cat 16 = 27.9 Mbit/s
# Cat 19 = 35.3 Mbit/s
# Cat 20 = 42.2 Mbit/s
# Cat 21 = 23.4 Mbit/s
# Cat 22 = 27.9 Mbit/s
# Cat 23 = 35.3 Mbit/s
# Cat 24 = 42.2 Mbit/s
# Cat 25 = 46.8 Mbit/s
# Cat 26 = 55.9 Mbit/s
# Cat 27 = 70.6 Mbit/s
# Cat 28 = 84.4 Mbit/s
#
#ro.ril.hsupa.category :
# Cat 1 = 0.73 Mbit/s
# Cat 2 = 1.46 Mbit/s
# Cat 3 = 1.46 Mbit/s
# Cat 4 = 2.93 Mbit/s
# Cat 5 = 2.00 Mbit/s
# Cat 6 = 5.76 Mbit/s
# Cat 7 = 11.5 Mbit/s
#
#Not speed related, but still nice to have :
#ro.ril.enable.3g.prefix : adds the 3G prefix to the operator name.
# ro.ril.enable.dtm : Only set this to 1 if your network allows simultaneous 
# transfer of Circuit switched (CS) voice and Packet switched 
# (PS) data over the same radio channel (ARFCN).

Preferred Network types:

WCDMA preferred - Automatically switches between G/E/3G/H based on the best/strongest signal available and is supported by all providers.
Has high battery usage since it constantly scans the network for the strongest signal to switch.

GSM only - Only uses G/E and never switches to 3G/H. Should have minimal battery usage.
(there is a problem with GSM only on some older networks... so if data is used, you can miss calls, thus GSM auto (PRL) is the safest setting)

WCDMA only - The GSM phone is capable of using only 3G data communication. When the 3G signal is too low you get nothing at all.
Only uses HSDPA and will not switch to G/E/3G even if the HSPDA signal is too low. Use this only if you use your phone in a area with good coverage. Should have moderate battery usage.

GSM auto (PRL) - Automatically switches between G/E/3G/H based on the PRL (Preferred Roaming List) for a provider on your phone.
Not supported by all providers and may not be supported in certain regions. Should have moderate battery usage since it uses a predefined list to switch.

CDMA auto (PRL) - The CDMA phone is capable of using both 2G and 3G data communication and when signal strength is low 2G is favored more.

CDMA only - The CDMA phone is capable of using only 2G data communication. When the 2G signal is too low you get nothing at all.

EvDo only - The CDMA phone is capable of using only 3G data communication. When the 3G signal is too low you get nothing at all.

GSM/CDMA auto (PRL) - Some phones are equipped with both GSM and CDMA capabilities. This setting appears to just have the phone attempt to stay connected to the data communication type that works the best.

Unknown - If none of the above fit or the phone is acting weird as far as connecting to the carrier, you will see your preferred network type is set to this


General NOTE:
If not known how to get a preferred network type, dial *#*#4636#*#* , this brings you in the "Testing" menu, select "Phone information" and scroll down to "Set preferred network type: "
Always be careful with switching to "PRL" as device issues might occur if "PRL" is not supported by your network provider !!
 
Last edited:

Wacco001

Senior Member
Mar 26, 2011
2,122
2,367
.. just around the corner !
RUU (ROM Upgrade Utility):

A) RUU Update - Flashing Android RUU Update Using HBoot

- First you need the RUU.exe that you intend to install.
- Run the RUU as Administrator.
- Tick the 'I understand the caution indicated above...' box, and click next.
- At this point do not go any further!
- Navigate to C:\Users\xxxxx\AppData\Local\Temp (xxxxx is your user name , and ... AppData is a hidden folder)
- You should see one or two folders like this example: {E328FA5C-81C2-4B70-96AE-D5418A9A5B75}
- Go into the folder with "dotnetinstaller.exe".
- Open the next folder. (like this example: {50F2F878-636A-496F-A7CB-544C067E0C4B}
- Copy "rom.zip" into another folder (outside of temp).
- At this point just Cancel and quit the ROM Update Utility.
- Rename the "rom.zip" to "PD98IMG.zip" and put it on to the root directory of your MicroSD card in your phone.
- Shut down the phone.
- Press the Power button + Volume down button at the same time and hold them untill you get to HBOOT (white screen with skateboarding android).
- Wait for the HBOOT to parse the zip file.
- Follow the on-screen instructions and boot into newly flashed device.


B) RUU Update - Install through PC

Download and install the latest HTC Sync and restart your computer.

- Download and run the 1.15.405.1 Test RUU as Administrator. (This one is known to find the Android DHD)
- Get to the "1. Connect the Smartphone to the USB Cable" step. (but no further !!!!)
- Go to the C:\Users\xxxxx\AppData\Local\Temp directory, and find the folder with dotnetinstaller.exe and inside the next folder find the rom.zip
- Delete this "rom.zip" (which is the 1.15 version !!) and replace it with the "rom.zip" copied out earlier!!! -> See A) RUU Update - Flashing Android RUU Update Using HBoot !!!

Back to the RUU installer ...

- Now click through the next buttons.
- The RUU Utility should now be set to update. You will see the version number of the rom at the final step.
- Click update...
 

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Last edited:

Wacco001

Senior Member
Mar 26, 2011
2,122
2,367
.. just around the corner !
Android Partitions:

Android uses several partitions to organize files and folders on the device. Each of these partitions has a distinct role in the functionality of the device.

Standard internal memory partitions on Android phones and tablets:
/boot
/system
/recovery
/data
/cache
/misc

Hardware specific partitions:
(They are tied to the hardware of the phone, but the kernel may have code allowing Android to interact with said hardware.)
/radio
/wimax

SD card partitions:
/sdcard
/sd-ext

Note that only /sdcard is found in all Android devices and the rest are present only in select devices.


Purpose and contents of each of these partitions:

/boot
This is the partition that enables the phone to boot, as the name suggests. It includes the bootloader and the kernel. Without this partition, the device will simply not be able to boot.
Wiping this partition from recovery should only be done if absolutely required and once done, the device must NOT be rebooted before installing a new one, which can be done by installing a ROM that includes a /boot partition.

/system
This partition basically contains the entire operating system, other than the kernel and the bootloader. This includes the Android user interface as well as all the system applications that come pre-installed on the device. (Sense, boot animation, busybox, etc)
Wiping this partition will remove Android from the device without rendering it unbootable, and you will still be able to put the phone into recovery or bootloader mode to install a new ROM.

/recovery
The recovery partition can be considered as an alternative boot partition that lets you boot the device into a recovery console for performing advanced recovery and maintenance operations on it.

/data
Also called userdata, the data partition contains the user’s data – this is where your contacts, messages, settings and apps that you have installed go. Wiping this partition essentially performs a factory reset on your device, restoring it to the way it was when you first booted it, or the way it was after the last official or custom ROM installation. When you perform a wipe data/factory reset from recovery, it is this partition that you are wiping.

/cache
This is the partition where Android stores frequently accessed data and app components. Wiping the cache doesn’t effect your personal data but simply gets rid of the existing data there, which gets automatically rebuilt as you continue using the device.

/misc
This partition contains miscellaneous system settings in form of on/off switches. These settings may include CID (Carrier or Region ID), USB configuration and certain hardware settings etc. This is an important partition and if it is corrupt or missing, several of the device’s features will will not function normally.

/radio
The phone's radio firmware, controls cellular, data, GPS, bluetooth.

/wimax
Firmware for Sprint's flavor of 4G, WiMax.

/sdcard
This is not a partition on the internal memory of the device but rather the SD card. In terms of usage, this is your storage space to use as you see fit, to store your media, documents, ROMs etc. on it. Wiping it is perfectly safe as long as you backup all the data you require from it, to your computer first. Though several user-installed apps save their data and settings on the SD card and wiping this partition will make you lose all that data.

On devices with both an internal and an external SD card – devices like the Samsung Galaxy S and several tablets – the /sdcard partition is always used to refer to the internal SD card. For the external SD card – if present – an alternative partition is used, which differs from device to device. In case of Samsung Galaxy S series devices, it is /sdcard/sd while in many other devices, it is /sdcard2. Unlike /sdcard, no system or app data whatsoever is stored automatically on this external SD card and everything present on it has been added there by the user. You can safely wipe it after backing up any data from it that you need to save.

/sd-ext
This is not a standard Android partition. It is basically an additional partition on your SD card that acts as the /data partition when used with certain ROMs that have special features called APP2SD+ or data2ext enabled. It is especially useful on devices with little internal memory allotted to the /data partition. Thus, users who want to install more programs than the internal memory allows can make this partition and use it with a custom ROM that supports this feature, to get additional storage for installing their apps. Wiping this partition is essentially the same as wiping the /data partition – you lose your contacts, SMS, market apps and settings.
 
Last edited:

Wacco001

Senior Member
Mar 26, 2011
2,122
2,367
.. just around the corner !
CID: Carrier ID (+ some codes)

CID lock (aka vendor lock): Carrier Id - put on your device by the manufacturer to prevent installation of a ROM not released by them. Commonly used in the form `CID-Unlocking`. If you purchase your phone (example) from Vodafone (Vodafone is the ‘carrier’), your phone will only accept Vodafone ROMs (the carrier’s ROMs). If you want to flash ROMs from other carrier, you’ll need to CID-unlock your phone, so that your phone will accept other ROMs. All bootloaders (apart from HardSPL and SSPL) will only allow a ROM with the correct CID to be flashed onto the device. A device which has been CID unlocked will have ‘SuperCID’ which allows ANY ROM to be loaded onto the device, SuperCID also unlocks the Ext_ROM and allows it to be mounted. Note: In general, the phrase ‘unlock your phone’ usually refers to SIM-unlock, not CID unlock.

Code:
SuperCID 11111111	
Asia-HK-CHT HTC__622
ATT CWS__001
BM BM___001
Bouygues-Telecom BOUYG201
Brightstar-PTB BSTAR502
Brightstar-SPA BSTAR301
Chunghwa-Taiwan CHT__601
CT HTCCN702
CU HTCCN703
DCM DOCOM801
DOPOD DOPOD701
Era T-MOB009
Fastweb-IT FASTW401
GOOGLE GOOGL001
H3G-DAN H3G__F05
H3G-Italy H3G__402
H3G-ROI H3G__003
H3G-SWE H3G__G04
H3G-UK H3G__001
HTC-Asia-SEA HTC__037
HTC-Asia-SEA-WWE HTC__044
HTC-Australia HTC__023
HTC-BE HTC__E41
HTC-Czech HTC__C24
HTC-Denmark HTC__F08
HTC-Dutch HTC__E11
HTC-EastEurope HTC__032
HTC-ELL HTC__N34
HTC-FRA HTC__203
HTC-FRA-Bouygues HTC__247
HTC-GCC HTC__J15
HTC-GER	 HTC__102
HTC-India HTC__038
HTC-ITA HTC__405
HTC-Nor HTC__Y13
HTC-Norway HTC__H10
HTC-Poland HTC__B25
HTC-PTG HTC__506
HTC-Russia HTC__A07
HTC-Singapore ????????
HTC-SPA HTC__304
HTC-Sweden HTC__G09
HTC-Turkey HTC__M27 
HTC-WWE HTC__001
Hutch-Australia HUTCH001
O2-DE O2___102
O2-UK O2___001
Open-Channel HTCCN701
Optus-Australia OPTUS001
ORANGE-AT ORANG113
ORANGE-BE ORANG012
ORANGE-CH-FRA ORANG203
ORANGE-CH-GER ORANG104
ORANGE-ES ORANG309
ORANGE-French ORANG202
ORANGE-PL ORANGB10
ORANGE-PO ORANG008
ORANGE-SK ORANG006
ORANGE-UK ORANG001
Rogers ROGER001
SMC-Voda-HK SMCVD001
StarHub-Singapore ????????
TELEF-Spain TELEF301
Telstra TELST001
TELUS TELUS001
TIM-Italy TIM__401
TMA T-MOB102
TMCZ T-MOB004
TMD T-MOB101
TMH T-MOB007
TMHR T-MOB006
TMMK T-MOBL11
TMNL T-MOB003
TMSK T-MOB008
TMUK T-MOB005
TMUS T-MOB010
TWM-TW HTC__621
VIRGIN-UK VIRGI001
VODA-Africa-South HTC__016
VODA-Australia VODAP021
VODA-Germany VODAP102
VODA-Greece VODAP006
VODA-Ireland VODAP019
VODA-Italy VODAP405
VODA-Mobilkom VODAP120
VODA-Netherland VODAPE17
VODA-New-Zealand VODAP022
VODA-Portugal VODAPD18
VODA-Proximus VODAP024
VODA-SA VODAP026
VODA-SFR VODAP203
VODA-Spain VODAP304
VODA-Swisscom-DE VODAP110
VODA-Swisscom-FR VODAP212
VODA-Swisscom-IT VODAP416
VODA-Swisscom-WWE VODAP015
VODA-TR VODAPM27
VODA-UK VODAP001
 
Last edited:

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    Sharing is Caring - Caring is Helping - Helping is Sharing
    1934n9.jpg


    Purpose of this thread is to share some useful basic information as gathered using my (rooted) HTC Desire HD, and is meant as non posting/replying reference only thread.

    Thanks to all who've posted useful info, helped me with all my questions and contributed their knowledge and skills with the community.
    Special thanks to Mike1986 and all ARHD team members for showing skills, respect, patience and humor.
    and
    BIG respect for all great people I've met on various forums and sites for making great Android ROMs, MODs Themes, Apps, Scripts etc. and for all the posts containing useful and friendly information.



    Kernel: "abbreviations"
    Governors:
    Radio: Preferred Network types and info
    RUU (ROM Upgrade Utility):
    Android Partitions:
    Android: Anatomy and Physiology
    CID: Carrier ID (+ some codes)


    GLOSSARY
    Code:
    [B]2G[/B]
    The second generation of mobile telephony systems uses digital encoding. 2G networks support high bit rate voice, limited data communications and different levels of encryption. 2G networks include GSM, D-AMPS (TDMA) and CDMA. 2G networks can support SMS applications.
    
    2.5G
    2.5G extends 2G systems, adding features such as packet-switched connection and enhanced data rates. 2.5G networks include EDGE and GPRS. These networks support WAP, MMS, SMS mobile games, and search and directory.
    
    [B]3G[/B]
    The third generation of mobile systems provides high-speed data transmissions of 144Kbps and higher. 3G will support multimedia applications such as full-motion video, video conferencing and Internet access.
    
    [B]4G[/B]
    As of the end of 2009 it was consensus that 4G would designate Mobile Network technologies beyond 3G and its extensions "3,5G" (HSPA) , "3,75G" (HSPA+). These would logically include WiMax and LTE. In the beginning of 2011 carriers in the US started to misuse the term, advertising their HSPA networks as 4G press coverage on thisismynext Officially, the term 4G has been defined by the ITU to include LTE-Advanced and WirelessMAN-Advanced (WiMax2), none of witch are deployed anywhere still. GSMA PR
    
    802.1X
    As the IEEE standard for access control for wireless and wired LANs, 802.1x provides a means of authenticating and authorizing devices to attach to a LAN port. This standard defines the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), which uses a central authentication server to authenticate each user on the network.
    
    802.11
    The IEEE standard for wireless Local Area Networks. It uses three different physical layers, 802.11a, 802.11b and 802.11g.
    
    802.11a
    Operating in the 5 GHz band, 802.11a supports a maximum theoretical data rate of 54 Mbps, but more realistically it will achieve throughput somewhere between 20 Mbps to 25 Mbps in normal traffic conditions. In a typical office environment, its maximum range is 50 meters (150 feet) at the lowest speed, but at higher speed, the range is less than 25 meters (75 feet). 802.11a has four, eight, or more channels, depending on the country. WLAN products based on 802.11a technology are rapidly coming to market in 2003, making them more affordable and widely available.
    
    802.11b
    Most WLANs deployed today use 802.11b technology, which operates in the 2.4 GHz band and supports a maximum theoretical data rate of 11 Mbps, with average throughput falling in the 4 Mbps to 6 Mbps range. In a typical office environment, its maximum range is 75 meters (250 feet) at the lowest speed, but at higher speed its range is about 30 meters (100 feet). Bluetooth devices, 2.4 GHz cordless phones and even microwave ovens are sources of interference (and thus create poor performance) for 802.11b networks. Minimizing interference can be difficult because 802.11b uses only three non-overlapping channels. 802.11b products have been shipping in quantity for several years so you will find that products are plentiful and affordable.
    
    802.11e
    802.11e provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for LAN applications, which will be critical for delay-sensitive applications such as Voice over Wireless IP (VoWIP). The standard will provide classes of service with managed levels of QoS for data, voice, and video applications.
    
    802.11g
    The 802.11 task force is still developing 802.11g, and it is expected to be ratified as a standard by mid-2003. 802.11g offers the throughput of 802.11a with the backward compatibility of 802.11b. 802.11g will operate in the 2.4 GHz band but it will deliver data rates from 6 Mbps to 54 Mbps. Like 802.11b, it will have up to three non-overlapping channels. 802.11g uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation as does 802.11a, but, for backward compatibility with 11b, it also supports complementary code keying (CCK) modulation and, as an option for faster link rates, allows packet binary convolutional coding (PBCC) modulation.
    Its "backward compatibility" with 802.11b means that when a mobile 802.11b device joins an 802.11g access point, all connections on that access point slow down to 802.11b speeds.
    
    802.11h
    This standard is supplementary to the MAC layer to comply with European regulations for 5GHz WLANs. European radio regulations for the 5GHz band require products to have transmission power control (TPC) and dynamic frequency selection (DFS). TPC limits the transmitted power to the minimum needed to reach the furthest user. DFS selects the radio channel at the access point to minimize interference with other systems, particularly radar. Pan-European approval of 802.11h is not expected until the end of 2003.
    
    802.15
    This IEEE working group addresses the standard for WPANs. It has four active task groups.
    802.15.1 had the job of delivering the standard for low-speed, low-cost WPANs and is based on the Bluetooth spec.
    The 802.15.2 task group is developing the recommended practices on how 802.11 WLANs and 802.15 WPANs can co-exist in the 2.4 GHz band. It is mainly working on the interference problem between Bluetooth and 802.11.
    The 802.15.3 task group is delivering a standard for higher speed WPANs from 10 Mbps to 55 Mbps at distances less than 10 meters.
    The 802.15.4 task group is preparing a standard for simple, low-cost, low-speed WPANs. Data ranges from 2 Kbps to 200 Kbps and uses DSSS modulation in the 2.4 GHz and 915 MHz ranges.
    
    .apk or APK's
    An .apk file extension denotes an Android Package (APK) file, an .apk file can be opened and inspected using common archive tools
    
    .tar
    Similar to a zip file, a tar file archives multiple files into one file
    
    .tgz
    TGZ files are commonly used as install packages for Slackware Linux.
    
    ActiveSync
    This program by Microsoft is what we all use to connect to our computers at work or at home. It allows contacts, tasks, emails and Calendar events to be synchronised with Outlook as well as such things as media and favorites. In Windows Vista this has been replaced by the Windows Mobile Device Center. In addition ActiveSync allows browsing of the device in Windows Explorer and programs can be installed via an 'InstallShield' type package installer. AES - Advanced Encryption Standard.
    Security issues are a major concern for wireless LANs. AES is the U.S. government's next-generation cryptography algorithm, which will replace DES and 3DES.
    
    AKU
    Adaptation Kit Update - Starting with Windows Mobile 5 Microsoft began a policy of updates similar to that of the desktop windows. Rather the replacing the whole OS some functionality may be added. For example AKU 2.0 introduced push mail. These updates are distributed through the OEMs and are given to the consumer in form of ROM updates. Note that OEM may choose not to create an update with the latest AKU for their devices. Getting an AKU for your phone is like getting the SP2 (Service Pack 2) for your Windows Xp.
    
    AP - Access Point.
    Wireless devices, such as laptops or PDAs, connect to a wired LAN via an AP, which is a hardware device or a computer's software that acts as a communication hub. APs provide heightened wireless security and extend the physical range of a wireless LAN.
    
    Application Unlock
    Most Windows Mobile phones only allow you to load applications that have an acceptable digital signature. If you try to edit the registry or load an application it will give you an error. Application Unlocking removes this barrier and allows you to install any application or edit the registry to your liking.
    
    Bluetooth
    A wireless technology developed by Ericsson, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba that specifies how mobile phones, computers and PDAs interconnect with each other, with computers, and with office or home phones. The technology enables data connections between electronic devices in the 2.4 GHz range. Bluetooth would replace cable or infrared connections for such devices.
    
    Bootloader
    The bootloader is the first thing to load once you turn on the device, this does the job of booting up the device hardware and loading various items into memory before the ROM starts in the device. The bootloader is also responsible for enabling the flashing of new ROMs and other components such as the Radio and the Ext_ROM. Two modified bootloaders for the Hermes are HardSPL and SSPL.
    To enter the bootloader, press and hold the OK and POWER buttons while inserting the stylus into the reset hole on the bottom of the Hermes.
    
    BREW - Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless
    Developed by Qualcomm, BREW is an open source application development platform for wireless devices. BREW developers can create portable applications that work on any CDMA handset. Applications include SMS, e-mail, location positioning, games and Internet radio.
    When first introduced, BREW was solely for CDMA handsets. BREW has since been enabled for GSM handsets and expects to add TDMA handsets. BREW and J2ME are competing head-to-head for the wireless application development market.
    
    CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
    A digital wireless technology that uses a spread spectrum technique to scatter a radio signal across a wide range of frequencies. CDMA is a 2G technology. WCDMA, a 3G technology, is based on CDMA.
    CDMA has multiple variants, including CDMA 1X, cdma2000, CDMA2000 1X, CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and cdmaOne.
    
    CID
    The CID (Carrier ID) of the device is a setting which determines which carrier ROMs should be allowed to run on the device. All bootloaders (apart from HardSPL and SSPL) will only allow a ROM with the correct CID to be flashed onto the device. A device which has been CID unlocked will have SuperCID which allows ANY ROM to be loaded onto the device, SuperCID also unlocks the Ext_ROM and allows it to be mounted.
    
    CID Unlock
    Load any carrier ROM (in any language) on the device.
    
    CLDC - Connected Limited Device Configuration
    CLDC outlines the basic set of libraries and Java virtual machine features that must be present in each implementation of a J2ME environment.
    
    Cooked
    Refers to ROMs which have been modified and optimised by users to offer better performance than a carrier ROM
    
    CustomRUU
    CustomRUU is an RUU (Rom Upgrade Utility) which has support for ALL SPL versions including HardSPL and SSPL.
    
    Dalvik (cache)
    Dalvik cache is a program cache area for the program dalvik. Dalvik is a java based virtual machine that is the bases for running your programs (the ones that have the .apk extension). In order to make access times faster (because there's not JIT (just in time) compiler installed by default), the dalvik-cache is the result of dalvik doing a optimization of the running program.
    
    De-Odex
    Android uses a a java based virtual machine as the bases for running programs. This virtual machine is called Dalvik. A .dex file contains the cache used by the Dalvik VM (called Dalvik-cache) for a program and is stored inside the .apk. A .odex file is an optimized version of the .dex file which gets stored next to the .apk as opposed to inside the .apk. This process is done by default to system apps. Deodexing is the process of converting the .odex files back into .dex to be stored inside the .apk so that things can be more easily modified. So a deodexed rom is one that has been through the deodexing process. Deodex can just as easily be called Unodex or any other pre-fix you wish to use.
    
    EDGE - Enhanced Data GSM Environment
    A 2.5G technology that enhances GSM. EDGE increases transmission speeds on GSM networks and enables the transmission of large amounts of data at 384Kbps. With EDGE, mobile operators can deliver multimedia and other broadband applications to mobile phones.
    
    EPOC
    EPOC is an operating system developed by Symbian for small, portable computer-telephones with wireless access to phone and other information services. EPOC is based on an earlier operating system from Psion, the first major manufacturer of personal digital assistants (PDAs). The term is no longer in use and is now referred to as Symbian OS.
    
    Ext_ROM or ExtROM
    The Ext_ROM (or Extended Rom) is a dedicated part of the ROM memory that is (by default) hidden to the user. This area typically includes cab files that are loaded upon Hard Reset. Also, if the author of a ROM wishes, the flashing process can preserve the Ext_Rom. This space is frequently used by carriers, or others creating ROMs, to store cabs that load settings onto the phone.
    
    Firmware
    This is a piece of software that is stored in a device to make it function. It is, unlike ordinary software, usually semi-permanent and resides in a non-volatile storage area which is unaffected by "hard resetting" a device. The term usually refers to low-level code that controls individual hardware components such as a radio rom.
    
    Flash
    Term meaning to write something (usually a ROM image) to a non-volatile chip. The term originates from original chip writers (EPROM blowers) which used to write to a chip by fusing tiny areas in the chip making individual links either short circuit or open circuit.
    
    GPRS - General Packet Radio Service
    GPRS is a radio technology for GSM networks that adds packet-switching protocols. As a 2.5G technology, GPRS enables high-speed wireless Internet and other data communications. GPRS networks can deliver SMS, MMS, email, games and WAP applications.
    
    GPS
    This stands for Global Positioning System. It is technology whereby your device communicates with satellites in orbit around the planet to determine your location within an error margin of a few meters.
    
    GSM - Global System for Mobile communications
    GSM, a 2G technology, is the de facto European standard for digital cellular telephone service, and it is also available in the Americas. GSM is the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephone technologies (TDMA, GSM and CDMA), and it supports voice, data, text messaging and cross-border roaming. The SIM (Subscriber Identification Module), a removable plastic card that contains a users data, is an essential element in a GSM network.
    GSM operates in multiple frequency bands, GSM 900, GSM 1800, GSM 1900. When GSM is working on a radio frequency of 1800 MHz, it is sometimes referred to as DCS 1800, GSM1800 or PCN.
    
    H.323
    H.323 is the standard for interoperability in audio, video, and data transmissions, as well as Internet phone and Voice over IP. The standard addresses call control and management for point-to-point and multipoint conferences, as well as gateway administration of media traffic, bandwidth, and user participation.
    
    HardSPL
    This modified bootloader allows a much safer flashing process to take place since it reduces the chance of permenently bricking your HTC based device. It also removes the need to CID Unlock the device since it ALWAYS reports SuperCID when flashing.
    
    Hard Reset
    Similar to a soft reset, by performing a hard reset you completely wipe your device and restore it to the position it was in when you first turned the device on after it was purchased or after a new ROM is flashed.
    
    HDML - Handheld Device Markup Language
    Handheld Device Markup Language is used to format content for Web-enabled mobile phones. HDML allows Internet access from wireless devices and is derived from HTML. Openwave created this proprietary language, and it can only be viewed on mobile phones that use Openwave browsers.
    HDML was created before a WAP standard was defined. It uses Openwave's Handheld Device Transport Protocol (HDTP) instead of WAP. HDTP - Handheld Device Transport Protocol.
    This protocol is optimized for HDML. It presents the HDML to the HDML interpreter in an appropriate format.
    
    Heimdall
    is a cross-platform open-source tool suite used to flash firmware (aka ROMs) onto Samsung Galaxy S device
    
    IDEN
    A specialized mobile radio network technology that combines two-way radio, telephone, text messaging and data transmission into one network.
    
    IPL
    Initial program load - usually paired with Secondary Program Load (SPL), is the boot loader of your phone, much like the BIOS is the boot loader for your PC. Note: IPL/SPL are highly hardware dependent, flashing the wrong IPL/SPL is much more serious than a flashing the wrong ROM. It may be noted that, sometimes a ROM package also contains the IPL/SPL which will be flashed into your phone. Hence be extra careful what you are flashing. 
    
    J2ME - Java 2 Micro Edition.
    Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME) is the edition of the Java platform that is targeted at small, standalone or connectable consumer and embedded devices, such as cellular phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). The J2ME technology consists of a virtual machine and a set of APIs suitable for tailored runtime environments for these devices. The J2ME technology has two primary kinds of components--configurations and profiles.
    
    Java
    Industry standard object-oriented language and virtual machine, invented by Sun Microsystems and formally released in 1996. Some phones support downloading of Java applications over the WAP connection. Sun's Java specifications include many Java APIs and platforms, including the JavaPhone API and PersonalJava platform.
    
    Kang
    The process of creating a code based of someone else's code or reapplying code that someone else created into your own code (e.g. git cherry-pick)
    
    Kernel
    The central or core software component of most operating systems. Its responsibilities include managing the system's resources (the communication between hardware and software components) and can provide the lowest-level abstraction layer for resources (especially memory, processors, and I/O devices).
    
    Messaging
    SMS (Short Message Service) is a feature available with some wireless phones that allows users to send and/or receive short alphanumeric messages.
    Picture Messaging allows users to send and receive picture messages along with text. Users can choose from several preset and/or received pictures stored in their phones. Some phones also contain a picture editor.
    Chat Messaging lets users "talk" using SMS messages.
    MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) is a new standard that is being defined for use in advanced wireless terminals. The service allows for non-real-time transmission of various kinds of multimedia content, such as images, audio, and video clips.
    
    MexE - Mobile Station Application Execution Environment.
    Mobile Station Application Execution Environment is a framework to ensure a predictable environment for third-party applications in GSM or UMTS handsets. MExE does this by defining different technology requirements called "classmarks." MExE classmark 1 is based on WAP, classmark 2 on PersonalJava and JavaPhone, and classmark 3 on J2ME CLDC and MIDP. Other classmarks may be defined in the future. MExE specifies additional requirements for all classmarks, for instance a security environment, capability and content negotiation, a user profile, user interface personalization, management of services and virtual home environment. A handset can support multiple classmarks.
    
    Microbrowser
    Also called a mini-browser. Software built into a wireless device that allows users to access and display specially formatted Internet content, such as stock reports, news, and sports scores using a handset device.
    
    Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP)
    Set of Java APIs that is generally implemented on the Connected Limited Device Configuration (CLDC). It provides a basic J2ME application runtime environment targeted at mobile information devices, such as mobile phones and two-way pagers. The MIDP specification addresses issues such as user interface, persistent storage, networking, and application model.
    
    Nandroid or Nandroid Backup:
    A file typically created in the custom recovery program, such as 4EXT Recovery, that is a carbon copy of whatever state your phone is in. The file is typically stored on the SD card for later use in case something should go wrong in a ROM or Update, or a Boot Loop occurs
    
    .NET Compact Framework
    The .NET Compact framework is a smaller version of the .NET Common Language Runtime, optimized for the deployment of mobile applications running on resource-constrained devices such as PDAs. .NET CF supports only devices running Microsoft operating systems-specifically, Windows CE 3.0 (used in Pocket PC 2000 and Pocket PC 2002 platforms).
    
    OBEX - Object Exchange
    Object Exchange is a set of protocols allowing objects such as vCard contact information and vCalendar schedule entries to be exchanged using either IrDA or Bluetooth. Symbian OS implements IrDA for exchange of vCards, for example between a Nokia 9210 Communicator and an Ericsson R380 Smartphone, and vCalendar.
    
    OS
    Operating System - the platform software for your phone, much like Windows 7 for your PC. Upgrading the OS is like, in PC terms upgrading from Windows Vista to Windows 7.
    
    OC - OverClocking
    Overclocking is the process of running a computer component at a higher clock rate (more clock cycles per second) than it was designed for or was specified by the manufacturer
    
    PAN - Personal Area Network
    Allows devices to work together and share information and services. Using technologies such as Bluetooth, Personal Area Networks can be created in public places, in the home, in the office, in a car. This network enables everyday devices to communicate wirelessly. For example, a PAN allows users the ability to wirelessly synchronize with a desktop device to access e-mail or the Internet.
    
    Protocol
    Similar to `Radio`. Both terms refer to the radio protocol stack, which is the software which handles communications with the mobile network.
    
    QoS - Quality of Service
    Quality of Service is a measure of network performance that reflects the network's transmission quality and service availability. QoS can come in the form of traffic policy in which the transmission rates are limited, thereby guaranteeing a certain amount of bandwidth will be available to applications. Or QoS may take the form of traffic shaping, which are techniques to reserve bandwidth for applications but not guarantee its availability.
    
    Radio
    The radio stack is responsible for the phone functionality of the device. This includes GPRS, GSM, UMTS, and GPS operations. The version you use depends on who your carrier is as users have reported versions working better on one carrier than the other.
    
    ROM - Read Only Memory
    The ROM holds the Operating system and other components such as the bluetooth and wifi stacks. The ROM is accompanied by the Radio, Ext_ROM, SPL and IPL. Carriers such as T-mobile or Vodaphone taylor the ROM to their specifications and version numbers do not carry the same meaning across different carriers. IF the carrier you use supports the device well they will usually release regular ROM updates.
    
    Root
    Common word associated with giving a user "super user" access to their phones programming and other various asspects that would normaly not be possible.
    
    RTM
    Release to manufacturing or Ready to market.
    
    RUU
    The RUU (Rom Upgrade Utility) is the program which runs on the pc when a new ROM is flashed.
    
    Sense
    HTC Sense is a user interface, based on the TouchFlo 3D user interface, developed by HTC for mobile devices running Android and Windows Mobile. HTC Sense is a “design experience, an architecture that is all about how people use the device, making their content personal to how they use the device.” However, HTC has confused the issue by calling HTC Sense a user interface in press releases about the launch of the HTC Hero in India. Announced June 24, 2009, the first phone running Android to feature HTC Sense was the HTC Hero, and the first Windows Phone to feature HTC Sense (an updated TouchFlo) was the HTC HD2, announced October 6, 2009.
    
    SIM - Subscriber Identity Module
    Cellular systems using GSM technology employ SIM modules to store user provisioning information. Non-volitale storage for contact information is also available on these modules. This is also commonly used in the form `SIM unlock`. Some phones are locked to the specific telco from which you purchase your phone, eg you can't use a locked O2 phone using a Vodaphone SIM/smart card. To use SIM card from other telco, you need to SIM unlock your phone. Note: In general, the phrase 'unlock your phone' usually refers to SIM-unlock, not CID unlock.
    
    SIM Unlock
    Use any carrier's SIM in the device.
    
    SIP - Session Initiation Protocol
    SIP is the real-time communication protocol for Voice over IP (VoIP), and it has been expanded to support video and instant-messaging applications. SIP performs basic call-control tasks, such as session set up and tear down and signaling for features such as hold, caller ID and call transferring. Its functions are similar to Signaling System 7 (SS7) in standard telephony and H.323 or Media Gateway Control Protocol in IP telephony.
    With SIP, most of the intelligence for call setup and features resides on the SIP device or user agent, such as an IP phone or a PC with voice or instant-messaging software. In contrast, traditional telephony or H.323-based telephony uses a model of intelligent, centralized phone switches with dumb phones.
    
    SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol
    SOAP is a way for a program running in one kind of operating system to communicate with a program in the same or another kind of an operating system using HTTP and XML.
    
    Soft Reset
    Soft resetting the device will lose all the data currently in RAM and any unsaved information, much like pressing the reset button on your pc. A soft reset is the first thing to try if your device has stopped responding.
    
    SPL
    Secondary Program Loader. Refer to `IPL` or `Bootloader` for further information.
    
    SU
    "Super user", or root permissions
    
    SuperCID
    By CID unlocking your device the value of the CID is changed to 'SuperCID'. This allows the flashing of ANY ROM to the device regardless of the carrier and also unlocks the read/write capability of the Ext_ROM.
    
    UMTS - Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
    The 3G mobile telephone standard in Europe, standardized by ETSI. It supports a theoretical data throughput of up to 2 Mbps. Initial trials began in 2001, and it should be rolled out in most of the world by 2005.
    
    UV - UnderVolting
    Undervolting is the process of lowering the voltage supplied to the processor in order to achieve lower temperatures and/or saving battery
    
    VoIP - Voice Over IP
    VoIP is a set of technologies that enables voice to be sent over a packet network. While few corporations use VoIP today, its usage for messaging is expected to explode in the coming two years.
    Users can communicate using VoIP as easily as they do with today's PBXes and public phone network. By leveraging the existing data network, companies can save significant amounts of money by using VoIP for toll-bypass, which is particularly important for multinational corporations. VoIP will also speed the adoption of unified messaging by transmitting voice, fax and e-mail messages. VoIP is also known as IP telephony.
    Over the next several years, companies will deploy VoIP in conjunction with 802.11 wireless LANs, enabling workers to have WLAN-based mobile phones when in the office.
    
    VoWIP - Voice over Wireless IP
    Combining VoIP with 802.11 wireless LANs to create a wireless telephone system for offices is an emerging market segment. VoWIP enables businesses to leverage their wireless LANs to add voice communications, enabling companies to deploy and manage voice and data over a single wireless backbone.
    From a network perspective, VoWIP applications require some reservation of bandwidth to support the real-time nature of voice. Proprietary standards like Spectralink Voice Priority (SVP) are today's solution; however, the IEEE is developing the 802.11e standard for quality of service as a long-term solution.
    NOTE:
    Thread is under construction, so please accept my appologies regarding not finished/updated posts or typo's

    No claims can be made regarding content that I share. Consider this thread as "my private reference"

    123us5y.jpg
    21
    Governors:

    CPU governors control exactly how the CPU scales between your "max" and "min" set frequencies.

    - ondemand -> Available in most kernels, and the default governor in most kernels.
    When the CPU load reaches a certain point, ondemand will rapidly scale the CPU up to meet demand, then gradually scale the CPU down when it isn't needed.
    - conservative -> Available in some kernels. It is similar to the ondemand governor, but will scale the CPU up more gradually to better fit demand.
    Conservative provides a less responsive experience than ondemand, but can save battery.
    - performance -> Available in most kernels. It will keep the CPU running at the "max" set value at all times.
    This is a bit more efficient than simply setting "max" and "min" to the same value and using ondemand because the system will not waste resources scanning for the CPU load. This governor is recommended for stable benchmarking.
    - powersave -> Available in some kernels. It will keep the CPU running at the "min" set value at all times.
    - userspace -> This lets programs that runs on the OS decide the CPU frequency.
    - interactive -> The 'interactive' governor has a different approach. Instead of sampling the cpu at a specified rate, the governor will scale the cpu frequency up when coming out of idle.
    When the cpu comes out of idle, a timer is configured to fire within 1-2 ticks. If the cpu is 100% busy from exiting idle to when the timer fires then we assume the cpu is underpowered and ramp to MAX speed.
    If the cpu was not 100% busy, then the governor evaluates the cpu load over the last 'min_sample_rate' (default 50000 uS) to determine the cpu speed to ramp down to.
    - smartass -> Is an improved version of interactive governor (Best explanation i've found paraphrases to: based on interactive, but better.)
    (smartass is a "double" governor (near interactive - awake mode, near conservative (but not the same) - sleep mode), so when you use it in sleep mode, actually you use only a "half" of it.
    - smoothass -> (improved smartass)
    - brazilianwax -> Very agresive version of smartass
    - interactiveX -> Tweaked Interactive governor by Imoseyon by adding more features like suspend/wake profile
    - ondemandX -> Tweaked and ported from 2.6.38 base Ondemand governor by Imoseyon by adding more features like suspend/wake profile
    It's got its own sleep profile built in, so it doesn't play well with the OC daemon ..!
    - smartassV2 -> smartassV2 is generally based on the implementation of interactive with some major changes and the addition of a built in sleep profile (behaves a bit differently when screen is off vs. on).
    The smartassV2 improves the very naive scheme which the first smartass had.
    - lagfree -> lag free, but not that battery friendly as ondemand


    Note: as far as I could find it, smartass2 = smoothass. Original it was called smartass2, but the name has been changed into smoothass.

    * wake_min_freq = setting -> minimal frequency for device while it's awake
    * wake_max_freq = setting -> maximal frequency for device while it's awake
    * sleep_min_freq = setting -> minimal frequency for device while it's sleeping
    * sleep_max_freq = setting -> maximal frequency for device while it's sleeping
    * wake_governor = governor for device while it's awake
    * sleep_governor = governor for device while it's sleeping
    21
    Radio: Preferred Network types and info

    GSM => GSM(2G), GPRS(2.5G), EDGE(2.75G), UMTS(3G), WCDMA(3G), HSDPA(3.5G/3G+) HSUPA(3.75G) {Cell Carrier examples: AT&T and T-Mobile}
    CDMA => CDMA(2/3G) EV-DO(3G) WiMax(3/4G) {Cell Carrier examples: Verizon and Sprint}

    HSPA+ Evolved High Speed Packet Access (84 Mbit/s in the downlink and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink)
    H: HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (Category 8 - 7.2 / Category 10 - 14,0 Mbit/s in the downlink)
    H: HSUPA High Speed Uplink Packet Access (Category 6 - 5.76 Mbit/s in the uplink)
    3G: UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (384 kbit/s -> (max 2 Mbit)
    E: EDGE Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (384 kbit/s)
    G: GPRS General Packet Radio Service (52 kbit/s)
    GSM Global System for Mobile Communications (14.4 kbit/s)

    Remark:
    The ROM has a file called "build.prop" with various important settings in it.
    One of these settings is "ro.ril.hsxpa=2", this means you (might) have/use a HSDPA/HSUPA network (also called "HSPA") with high speed downloads and uploads, and this setting gives you the "U" in the radio name found in "Settings - About phone - Software information - More - (Baseband version)"

    Code:
    ro.ril.hsxpa indicates hsxpa support of the target network:
    #
    # Network parameters 
    #
    #ro.ril.hsxpa : inidcates hsxpa support of target network :
    # 0 - UMTS r99
    # 1 - HSDPA
    # 2 - HSDPA/HSUPA
    #
    #ro.ril.gprsclass : inidcates GPRS class of target network :
    # Class 2 : 3 slots : 8 - 12 kbps upload / 16 - 24 kbps download
    # Class 4 : 4 slots : 8 - 12 kbps upload / 24 - 36 kbps download
    # Class 6 : 4 slots : 24 - 36 kbps upload / 24 - 36 kbps download
    # Class 8 : 5 slots : 8 - 12 kbps upload / 32 - 40 kbps download
    # Class 10 : 5 slots : 16 - 24 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps download
    # Class 12 : 5 slots : 32 - 48 kbps upload / 32 - 48 kbps download
    #
    #ro.ril.hsdpa.category :
    # Cat 1 = 1.2 Mbit/s
    # Cat 2 = 1.2 Mbit/s
    # Cat 3 = 1.8 Mbit/s
    # Cat 4 = 1.8 Mbit/s
    # Cat 5 = 3.6 Mbit/s
    # Cat 6 = 3.6 Mbit/s
    # Cat 7 = 7.2 Mbit/s
    # Cat 8 = 7.2 Mbit/s
    # Cat 9 = 10.1 Mbit/s
    # Cat 10 = 14.0 Mbit/s
    # Cat 11 = 0.9 Mbit/s
    # Cat 12 = 1.8 Mbit/s
    # Cat 13 = 17.6 Mbit/s
    # Cat 14 = 21.1 Mbit/s
    # Cat 15 = 23.4 Mbit/s
    # Cat 16 = 27.9 Mbit/s
    # Cat 19 = 35.3 Mbit/s
    # Cat 20 = 42.2 Mbit/s
    # Cat 21 = 23.4 Mbit/s
    # Cat 22 = 27.9 Mbit/s
    # Cat 23 = 35.3 Mbit/s
    # Cat 24 = 42.2 Mbit/s
    # Cat 25 = 46.8 Mbit/s
    # Cat 26 = 55.9 Mbit/s
    # Cat 27 = 70.6 Mbit/s
    # Cat 28 = 84.4 Mbit/s
    #
    #ro.ril.hsupa.category :
    # Cat 1 = 0.73 Mbit/s
    # Cat 2 = 1.46 Mbit/s
    # Cat 3 = 1.46 Mbit/s
    # Cat 4 = 2.93 Mbit/s
    # Cat 5 = 2.00 Mbit/s
    # Cat 6 = 5.76 Mbit/s
    # Cat 7 = 11.5 Mbit/s
    #
    #Not speed related, but still nice to have :
    #ro.ril.enable.3g.prefix : adds the 3G prefix to the operator name.
    # ro.ril.enable.dtm : Only set this to 1 if your network allows simultaneous 
    # transfer of Circuit switched (CS) voice and Packet switched 
    # (PS) data over the same radio channel (ARFCN).

    Preferred Network types:

    WCDMA preferred - Automatically switches between G/E/3G/H based on the best/strongest signal available and is supported by all providers.
    Has high battery usage since it constantly scans the network for the strongest signal to switch.

    GSM only - Only uses G/E and never switches to 3G/H. Should have minimal battery usage.
    (there is a problem with GSM only on some older networks... so if data is used, you can miss calls, thus GSM auto (PRL) is the safest setting)

    WCDMA only - The GSM phone is capable of using only 3G data communication. When the 3G signal is too low you get nothing at all.
    Only uses HSDPA and will not switch to G/E/3G even if the HSPDA signal is too low. Use this only if you use your phone in a area with good coverage. Should have moderate battery usage.

    GSM auto (PRL) - Automatically switches between G/E/3G/H based on the PRL (Preferred Roaming List) for a provider on your phone.
    Not supported by all providers and may not be supported in certain regions. Should have moderate battery usage since it uses a predefined list to switch.

    CDMA auto (PRL) - The CDMA phone is capable of using both 2G and 3G data communication and when signal strength is low 2G is favored more.

    CDMA only - The CDMA phone is capable of using only 2G data communication. When the 2G signal is too low you get nothing at all.

    EvDo only - The CDMA phone is capable of using only 3G data communication. When the 3G signal is too low you get nothing at all.

    GSM/CDMA auto (PRL) - Some phones are equipped with both GSM and CDMA capabilities. This setting appears to just have the phone attempt to stay connected to the data communication type that works the best.

    Unknown - If none of the above fit or the phone is acting weird as far as connecting to the carrier, you will see your preferred network type is set to this


    General NOTE:
    If not known how to get a preferred network type, dial *#*#4636#*#* , this brings you in the "Testing" menu, select "Phone information" and scroll down to "Set preferred network type: "
    Always be careful with switching to "PRL" as device issues might occur if "PRL" is not supported by your network provider !!
    16
    Kernel: "abbreviations"

    A kernel is a layer of code that allows the OS and applications to interface with your phone's hardware. The degree in which you can access your phone's hardware features depends on the quality of code in the kernel. The homebrew (rooting) community for HTC has made several kernel code improvements that give us additional features from our hardware that the stock kernel does not. When you flash a custom ROM, you automatically get a kernel. But you can also flash a standalone kernel on top of the existing one, effectively overwriting it.

    A quick and brief overview of some kernel "abbreviations" I've found ..

    OC 1.6 - Over Clock max 1,6GHz
    OC+1.9 - Over Clock max 1,9GHz
    2WCR - Two Way Call Recording support - now you can record incoming and outgoing calls (takes the audio direct from the chipset line in/out)
    NCR - No Call Recording support
    BFS - Brain **** Scheduler is a task scheduler - major performance increase over stock CFS (Completely Fair Scheduler) -> is not recommended for ROM with Sense
    VIO - V(r) Input/Output scheduler - controls data input and output (memory card, disk, etc..) - stock kernel has CFQ
    SLQB - a low level memory allocator/manager
    MIUI - kernel for MIUI ROM
    CFS - Completely Fair Scheduler
    CIFS - Common Internet File System (is a virtual file system for Linux to allow access to servers and storage appliances compliant with the SNIA CIFS Specification)
    TUN - VPN support
    VR - I/O scheduler (better than NOOP)
    NOOP - The NOOP scheduler is the simplest I/O scheduler for the Linux kernel.
    VDD - Voltage Drain Drain (refers to the positive operating voltage of a field effect semiconductor device.)
    NLS - National Language Support
    12
    RUU (ROM Upgrade Utility):

    A) RUU Update - Flashing Android RUU Update Using HBoot

    - First you need the RUU.exe that you intend to install.
    - Run the RUU as Administrator.
    - Tick the 'I understand the caution indicated above...' box, and click next.
    - At this point do not go any further!
    - Navigate to C:\Users\xxxxx\AppData\Local\Temp (xxxxx is your user name , and ... AppData is a hidden folder)
    - You should see one or two folders like this example: {E328FA5C-81C2-4B70-96AE-D5418A9A5B75}
    - Go into the folder with "dotnetinstaller.exe".
    - Open the next folder. (like this example: {50F2F878-636A-496F-A7CB-544C067E0C4B}
    - Copy "rom.zip" into another folder (outside of temp).
    - At this point just Cancel and quit the ROM Update Utility.
    - Rename the "rom.zip" to "PD98IMG.zip" and put it on to the root directory of your MicroSD card in your phone.
    - Shut down the phone.
    - Press the Power button + Volume down button at the same time and hold them untill you get to HBOOT (white screen with skateboarding android).
    - Wait for the HBOOT to parse the zip file.
    - Follow the on-screen instructions and boot into newly flashed device.


    B) RUU Update - Install through PC

    Download and install the latest HTC Sync and restart your computer.

    - Download and run the 1.15.405.1 Test RUU as Administrator. (This one is known to find the Android DHD)
    - Get to the "1. Connect the Smartphone to the USB Cable" step. (but no further !!!!)
    - Go to the C:\Users\xxxxx\AppData\Local\Temp directory, and find the folder with dotnetinstaller.exe and inside the next folder find the rom.zip
    - Delete this "rom.zip" (which is the 1.15 version !!) and replace it with the "rom.zip" copied out earlier!!! -> See A) RUU Update - Flashing Android RUU Update Using HBoot !!!

    Back to the RUU installer ...

    - Now click through the next buttons.
    - The RUU Utility should now be set to update. You will see the version number of the rom at the final step.
    - Click update...
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