Ok, I think I'll explain this further to you.
Windows stores much of its configuration in a system register. Most of other systems, including Android, store config in many configuration files. They're usually textual and human readable, so you could open and edit them using any text editor, even notepad. Usually every installed service/daemon has its own configuration file(s).
This approach has pros and cons over system register. Config files are less standardized: some of them are xml files, others are ini-like or even custom format. So it's quite messy comparing to system register. On the other hand developer could choose format which is most suitable for his needs and you don't need any special software to edit system configuration. Config files are also very simple from technical point of view and this is good.
Unix systems usually store their config files in /etc/ directory. On Android it's /system/etc/ - there you will find a lot of files and you could open any of them, look into, edit, etc. Of course it's not a good idea to do some random changes I don't think you'll find complete guide to Android config files, because every device/ROM is different. Fortunately most of these files aren't specific to Android, but Linux/Unix or some service, so you should be able to find some help in Google.
Yes, we have mobile phones in Poland ;-)
Advanced options for wifi are in /system/etc/wifi/tiwlan.ini, but I'm not sure whether every device uses tiwlan driver. Of course these options aren't the same as in Windows configuration.