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[Kernel][surnia] Squid Kernel for Moto E LTE (2015)

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Recognized Developer
Mar 9, 2015
Squid Kernel r23

This is a maintenance release with lots of security fixes. It also brings binder updates to make the source more compatible with Oreo. However, the builds I've posted for r23 are still for Nougat ROMs only. I've migrated to the Linaro GCC 7.3 compiler, and fixed numerous compiler warnings in the process.

On surnia, I've also fixed picture taking with the front camera.


New member
Feb 5, 2018
This is a maintenance release with lots of security fixes. It also brings binder updates to make the source more compatible with Oreo. However, the builds I've posted for r23 are still for Nougat ROMs only. I've migrated to the Linaro GCC 7.3 compiler, and fixed numerous compiler warnings in the process.

On surnia, I've also fixed picture taking with the front camera.
Sir I'm sorry if this is already asked, but can you please make squid kernel for otus/MSM8610 family as well?
Thank you!


Senior Member
Sep 28, 2015
someone did test r23 in crDroid Oreo? I've recently flashed this crDroid and my phone is too laggy. I was using RR Oreo 8.1 r11 unofficial and dispite some camcorder bugs it was much more faster. I don't know what makes this crDroid consumes this amount of CPU and RAM. To alternate between apps it's a hell.


Recognized Developer
Mar 9, 2015
someone did test r23 in crDroid Oreo? I've recently flashed this crDroid and my phone is too laggy. I was using RR Oreo 8.1 r11 unofficial and dispite some camcorder bugs it was much more faster. I don't know what makes this crDroid consumes this amount of CPU and RAM. To alternate between apps it's a hell.

The builds I posted for r23 will not work on Oreo. With that said, making it work on Oreo should only require a few changes to the defconfig and recompilation. I will be releasing an Oreo compatible version in a couple weeks once I have polished official LOS 15.1 trees ready.


New member
Apr 28, 2021
Download links not working anymore...

Can somebody post the Squid Kernel again ? (maybe put it on GoogleDrive or similar..?)

Please, please! :)
it's the best kernel for Nougat, but I reinstalled the ROM and lost it...

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  • 94
    This is my Squid Kernel for the 2015 Moto E LTE. It's based off the stock kernel available on Motorola's GitHub. Flash it using TWRP. Bug reports and contributions are welcome.

    This is a development thread. Questions should go in the Q&A thread.

    This is for the 2015 Moto E LTE only! Version r22b and up require ROMs with an updated ACDB (audio calibration database) loader, such as LineageOS 14.1 builds from January 2018 and newer. If your ROM has an incompatible ACDB loader, you may experience low audio volume. Stick with version r22 for Marshmallow ROMs (including stock) and older Nougat ROMs without an updated ACDB loader.

    You must update your modem to the Android 5.1 version or newer for the r12 kernel and newer to work properly. You can find modems in the modems thread. If you can't find an up to date modem for your variant and are running a Marshmallow ROM, try the older r15c version. The r6-r11e kernels are for 5.1 ROMs only. Don't flash this on the 3G model. This kernel is provided AS-IS, with no warranties. I am not responsible for bricking your device. Flash at your own risk.

    • LED notification support
    • Moderately undervolted
    • Updated to Linux 3.10.108
    • Synced with latest CodeAurora changes
    • Improved memory caching backported from Linux 3.15
    • Improved storage performance
    • Optimized ARM crypto routines
    • Updated f2fs and WiFi drivers
    • FIOPS and BFQ I/O schedulers
    • Lionfish CPU governor
    • IntelliPlug CPU hotplug (by faux123)
    • KCAL MDP5 colour control (by savoca)
    • Improved zRAM backported from Linux 4.9
    • Vibration intensity control
    • Compiled with Linaro GCC 7.3 and optimized for Cortex A53
    • Stripped down and optimized configuration

    Release History:
    r23: August 15, 2018
    - Fixed surnia front camera
    - Tonnes of security patches
    - Updated binder
    - Compiled with Linaro GCC 7.3.1
    r22b: January 13, 2018
    - Audio driver fixes
    - Requires a ROM with an updated ACDB loader
    r22: January 11, 2018
    - Security patches
    - Updated camera drivers
    r21: December 6, 2017
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.108
    - Security patches
    - Oreo support related patches
    r20: August 2, 2017
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.107
    - Tonnes of security patches from many places
    - Updated sdcardfs from Google
    - Updated WiFi driver from CAF
    - Compiled with Linaro GCC 6.3.1
    r19: January 1, 2017
    - Added support for Nougat ROMs
    - Updated zRAM from Linux 4.9
    - Updated (optimized) FUSE from CAF
    - Kernel ASLR and many info leak fixes
    - ARM PXN support for exploit mitigation
    - Tons of security updates
    - Some CAF updated from LA.BR.1.2.9_rb1.10
    - Fixed kernel panic on VPN disconnection
    - Updated compiler to Linaro GCC 6.2.1
    r18: November 8, 2016
    - Tons of security updates
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.104
    - Updates from Motorola Harpia kernel
    - GPU driver latency reduction
    r17: August 16, 2016
    - Security updates
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.102
    - CyanogenMod compatibility updates
    r16g: May 16, 2016
    - Security updates
    r16f: April 14, 2016
    - Reverted f2fs update
    - Updated zRAM from Linux 4.4
    r16d: April 8, 2016
    - Security fixes
    - Vibration intensity control
    - Updated f2fs
    - Patches for CM13 compatibility
    - IntelliPlug disabled by default
    - Built with Linaro GCC 5.3
    r16: March 20, 2016
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.101
    - Updated to Motorola MPD24.107
    - Updated WiFi driver from CAF
    - IO optimizations under heavy load
    - Miscellaneous bug and security fixes
    r15c: March 5, 2016
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.99
    - Updated camera driver configuration
    - Compatible with Marshmallow stock ROM
    r15b: Feburary 27, 2016
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.98
    - ARMv8 crypto related fixes
    - Use ARMv8 crypto for adopted storage
    r15: February 6, 2016
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.96
    - Updated f2fs from Linux 4.5
    - Kernel library optimizations
    - Improved CFQ IO scheduler
    - Improved kernel PRNG
    - ARMv8 accelerated crypto support
    - Better use of ARM instruction set
    - Added minimum CPUs parameter for IntelliPlug
    - Miscellaneous bug fixes
    r14b: January 23, 2016
    - Fixed low/poor call audio
    - Security fix for CVE-2016-0728
    r14: January 16, 2016
    - Updated to Motorola Marshmallow sources
    - Updates from CAF LA.BR.1.2.7_rb1.1
    - Security and bug fixes from Linux 3.12.52
    - Compatible with Marshmallow stock ROM
    - More than a dozen CAF security fixes
    - Miscellaneous bug fixes
    - Somewhat smoother animations
    r12: December 25, 2015
    - FOR CM13 ONLY!!!
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.94
    - Updated to LA.BR.1.1.3_rb1.41
    - Updated zRAM
    - Improved memory caching scheme from Linux 3.15
    - Optimized memory allocation and management
    - Optimized CPU scheduler
    - Optimized performance event tracking
    r11e: December 1, 2015
    - Fixed some cpufreq races
    - Minor bug fixes
    r10g: November 11, 2015
    - Patched Pronto CR-930533 vulnerability
    - Fixed possible use-after-free in zRAM
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.93
    - Compiled with Linaro GCC 5.1
    r10f: November 8, 2015
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.92
    - Updated to CAF LA.BR.1.1.3_rb1.36
    - Updated to Moto Maxx 2 Kernel
    - Security and stability improvements
    r10d: October 26, 2015
    - Fixed r10c SELinux regression on stock ROM
    r10c: October 24, 2015
    - Fixed encryption
    - Patches for Android 6.0 compatibility
    r10b: October 4, 2015
    - Fixed move app to SD card issue
    - Cleaned up DTBs to reduce size
    r10: October 3, 2015
    - Added KCAL colour control (by savoca)
    - Added optimized crypto routines for ARM
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.90
    - Optimized memory performance
    - General cleanup and optimization
    r9e: October 1, 2015
    - Updated to lux kernel sources
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.89
    - Updated to LA.BR.1.1.3_rb1.32
    - Small tweaks and optimizations
    r8: Septemver 15, 2015
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.88
    - Updated to LA.BR.1.13_rb1.29
    - Improved zRAM backported from Linux 4.1
    - WiFi driver background scan changes
    - Added adaptive low memory killer
    - Included the WLAN NV patch I had posted earlier
    r7f: August 25, 2015
    - Downgraded WiFi driver to LA.BR.1.1.2_rb1.18
    - This actually fixes the WiFi crashes :D
    r7e: August 25, 2015
    - Added LED notification support
    - Updated WiFi driver to LA.BR.1.2.4_rb1.14
    - Maybe this will fix bootloop issues for affected users
    r7d: August 23, 2015
    - Updated everything to LA.BR.1.1.3_rb1.25
    - There were some interesting WLAN driver changes
    - Maybe this will fix WiFi bootloop issue in r7c
    r7c: August 20, 2015
    - Updated WiFi driver to LA.BR.1.1.3_rb1.23
    - Maybe it will fix DHCP issues with certain routers
    r7b: August 19, 2015
    - New universal flashing script
    - Works on any surnia variant and ROM
    r7: August 19, 2015
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.87
    - Updated to Qualcomm LA.BR.1.1.3_rb1.24
    - Updated to Motorola MMI-LPI23.72-9
    - Added a few extra WiFi driver options
    - Added CPU touch booster feature
    r6: July 28, 2015
    - Rebased for use on 5.1 ROMS ONLY
    - Updated to Qualcomm's LA.BR.1.1.3_rb1.21 release
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.84
    - Updated WiFi drivers
    - Added my new and original Lionfish CPU governor
    - Added Conservative CPU governor
    - Added faux123's IntelliPlug CPU hotplug implementation
    - Added BFQ IO scheduler
    - Numerous bug fixes
    r5: April 21, 2015
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.75
    - Added FIOPS I/O scheduler
    - Updated f2fs drivers backported from Linux 4.0
    - Milder undervolt for improved stability and compatibility
    - Uses full Boost Mobile ramdisk for CDMA variant
    r4: April 15, 2015
    - Updated to Linux 3.10.74
    - Milder undervolt to better support all devices
    - Cleaned up defconfig and device tree
    - Various minor bugfixes
    r3c: April 5, 2015
    - Fixed still picture taking with front-facing camera
    r3: April 4, 2015
    - Initial public release

    Main downloads tab

    XDA:DevDB Information
    Squid Kernel for Styx LTE, Kernel for the Moto E 2015

    Source Code: https://github.com/sultanqasim/android_kernel_motorola_msm8916

    Kernel Special Features: undervolted, lionfish, fiops, intelliplug, latest Linux and Qualcomm fixes

    Version Information
    Status: Stable
    Current Stable Version: r23
    Stable Release Date: 2018-08-15

    Created 2015-04-04
    Last Updated 2018-08-15
    Lionfish and Recommended Settings

    My new Lionfish governor combines traits of the conservative, ondemand, and interactive governors. It is designed to maximize battery life without noticeably impacting performance. It responds quickly to heavy loads (similar to ondemand and interactive) while staying within the region of optimal CPU performance per watt. With moderate loads, it periodically votes to raise, maintain, or decrease the frequency. When there are enough votes to change the frequency, it is ramped up and down gradually. The voting mechanism reduces frequency jitter compared to ondemand and conservative. My testing had found that this governor uses moderate frequencies (where efficiency is optimal) more effectively than interactive, ondemand, and conservative. This improved frequency distribution results in a moderate reduction in CPU power consumption while maintaining responsiveness comparable to the interactive governor.

    IntelliPlug is enabled by default in this kernel. The default governor is still interactive. For optimal performance and battery life, I recommend using the fiops IO scheduler, Lionfish governor, and lowering the CPU idle frequency to 400 MHz (from the default of 800 MHz). The combination of IntelliPlug, Lionfish, undervolting, and reducing idle to 400 MHz should result in a CPU power consumption reduction of around 20% compared to the stock kernel. This will typically correspond to 8-15% increase in battery life compared to the stock configuration.
    Squid Kernel r19

    This is a pretty big release. The headline change is added support for Nougat ROMs. This kernel is still backwards compatible with Marshmallow ROMs. I also updated to newer compiler (Linaro GCC 6.2.1). However, there are a bunch of improvements beyond just catching up the the CyanogenMod 14.1 kernel.

    Updated zRAM
    I've updated zRAM to be mostly in sync with Linux 4.9. The main change is the adoption of what is called "per-cpu compression". Essentially, instead of having a fixed number of compression threads spread across all CPU cores that are moved around by the scheduler, there is one dedicated compression stream per online CPU core. Enforcing that compression streams stay fixed on a particular CPU improves caching performance and reduces overhead. Also, compression streams are now automatically added/removed as CPU cores are onlined/offlined. These changes improve zRAM performance by a few percentage points.

    Updated FUSE
    I've cherry-picked a patch series from CAF improving FUSE, the mechanism that facilitates implementing file systems in userspace. Android uses FUSE for SD cards (when not using esdfs or sdcardfs, as is the case on CM13). One improvement I improved is called writeback caching. Traditionally, when writing to a fuse device, the kernel passes data up to the fuse daemon one (128K) chunk at a time, and write() system calls don't complete till all the chunks are passed to fuse. Now, writes are cached in kernel, allowing write() to return more quickly, and fuse then gets cached chunks at its own pace without blocking the write() system call. The other improvement is called "short-circuiting", which allows the fuse userspace to instruct the kernel driver to perform certain IO operations directly, bypassing the userspace daemon. This can reduce overhead and latency. The FUSE changes in this release likely won't be hugely noticeable given the bottleneck is usually the slow speed of SD cards, but there should be some improvement.

    Security Improvements
    As usual, I incorporated all the security patches that made it into the CM/LineageOS kernel since the last release. However, I also scoured Kernel.org and CAF to bring in dozens more security fixes missing in the CM/LineageOS kernel. I plan to upstream the important fixes into the LineageOS kernel later when I get time.

    In addition to the usual reactive security patches, this release also adds some basic exploit mitigations. Nougat introduced kernel address space layout randomization (KASLR) to increase the difficulty of exploitation. However, the kernel has traditionally had a ton of logging messages leaking memory addresses, making it ineffecive. Searching Kernel.org and CAF, I found a bunch more patches fixing kernel address leaks, making KASLR less useless. There are probably still some things that can leak addresses, and KASLR is implemented rather weakly, but something is better than nothing. Another exploit mitigation I added is support for the ARM PXN bit that can mark userspace code as not executable in kernel context. This prevents a class of exploits known as "return to user".

    I also fixed an issue disconnecting from PPTP VPNs reported by @spiked_mistborn. It was a regression introduced by a mismerge I made in r17, leading to a double free.

    For whatever reason, the XDA downloads tab appears blank when logged in with my user account, so I can’t upload to the usual spot right now. In the interim, I’ve posted a build to MediaFire: http://www.mediafire.com/file/hunyec9k4kkl4v4/squid_kernel_r19-surnia.zip

    Finally, happy new year everyone!
    Squid Kernel r10g

    I hadn't originally planned for this, but a new security vulnerability found in Pronto WLAN driver the forced me to do one more r10 series release. This release includes the Pronto security fix, a zRAM bug fix, and Linux 3.10.93.

    For this release, I switched from Linaro GCC 4.9.3 to Linaro GCC 5.1. The newer compiler produces slightly smaller and slightly faster binaries. I had originally tried out the new compiler for the past couple releases on lux, and there was a small but noticeable performance improvement in normal usage. I hope you enjoy the performance boost brought by the newer compiler.
    Squid Kernel r20

    After a long break, I've prepared a new version of this kernel. This is mainly a maintenance release to get up to speed on security patches, as well as bring in various upstream bug fixes. This kernel is probably the best patched kernel available for this device family as of today - there are hundreds of security-relevant patches here that haven't yet made it to the LineageOS kernel. This is partly a matter of patching policy - for LineageOS, apart from ASB patches, we carefully assess necessity and impact of each change prior to inclusion, whereas here, if I see a security patch that looks relevant, I cherry-pick it without much further analysis. Backporting all these changes to to the LineageOS kernel will be a very time consuming undertaking.

    As before, the kernel should work on both Marshmallow and Nougat ROMs, and both stock and custom ROMs. The download is on the downloads tab.